Montreal to Kigali
The brief history of refrigeration explains why generations of refrigerants were developed and then replaced, just like many other products and processes throughout history as knowledge, understanding and technical capability increases.
Lower GWP HFCs and HFOs and HCFOs offer a good balance of technical, safety and environmental properties enabling their use in energy efficient applications.
HFOs and HCFOs bridge the historical divide between maximising safety (achieved through the use of non-flammable, low order of toxicity, but high GWP HFCs) and minimising GWP (achieved through the use of low GWP, but highly flammable hydrocarbons or toxic ammonia). The available HFOs and HCFOs have varied physical properties enabling the optimum choice to be selected for a diverse range of applications, something that cannot be achieved with CO2.
Mildly flammable A2L low GWP HFCs and HFC/HFO blend refrigerants provide a good balance of safety, environmental and technical properties. Lower GWP non-flammable HFC/HFO blends allow the replacement of high GWP HFCs.