Successful completion of a theoretical and practical examination by the applicant that meets the standards laid down in the minimum conditions for the activities in question. The responsibility for organizing the examination system is with the Member States, which are free to maintain or adopt additional criteria beyond the minimum criteria established by the EU (e.g. a minimum number of training hours).
However, certificates based on less restrictive conditions of other Member States have to be considered valid also by Member States with stricter requirements! When an existing examination based certification systems covers the necessary skills, Member States can automatically validate the existing certificates.