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2,500 HFC-BASED ICE ENERGY STORAGE UNITS PROVIDED BY AN AMERICAN UTILITY COMPANY TO REDUCE UP TO 25 MW PEAK LOAD

In order to reduce summer peak loads, a Californian Utility Company will be providing 2,500 R-410A Ice Energy Storage Units to owners of typically 15-70 kW rooftop air conditioning (AC) systems, common for small to mid-size commercial buildings.

The R-410A Ice Energy Storage Unit is an intelligent distributed energy storage solution that works in conjunction with a direct-expansion AC systems.

On summer afternoons, about a third of Southern California electricity demand comes from AC loads, so that reducing those peaks will help the utility, improving its load factor and its electricity production efficiency, and reducing its costs.

The Ice Energy Storage unit stores energy at night, when electricity generation is more efficient and less expensive, and delivers that energy during peak hours to provide cooling to the building. This allows peak daytime hours to be reduced significantly and, as each system delivers an average reduction of 12 kW peak demand for a minimum of 6 hours daily, 72 kWh will be shifted to off-peak hours. The aim is to reach a total energy storage of 25 MW when the 2,500 units will have been installed, shifting the operation of commercial AC condensing units from peak to off-peak periods..

Operation of the ice energy storage

At night, when temperatures drop and electricity is cheap, each system will freeze around 170 litres of water into a solid block of ice, operating as an integrated high-efficiency AC condensing unit, as thermal efficiency will be higher with lower temperatures.

During the day, when temperatures rise, the AC unit compressor (inefficient at that time, when temperatures are high) will be shut down and the ice will be used to cool the hot refrigerant, slowly melting the ice. The only energy consumed is to run a small pump pushing ice-cold refrigerant through a modified evaporator coil installed in the conventional AC unit.

In total, besides helping to shift peak hours demand, the added ice storage system will significantly reduce the AC unit energy consumption.

Source : here and Manufacturer information

200 DUTCH SUPERMARKETS REPLACING HIGH GWP HFC BLENDS BY LOWER GWP ONE

Following trials to replace high GWP blends R-404A and R-507 (GWP of respectively 3,922 and 3,985) which showed that R-449A (GWP of 1,397, or 65% lower) was an energy efficient alternative, a Dutch retail group has converted 200 of its supermarkets to R-449A.

R-449A, a blend of HFC-32 /HFC-125 /HFO-1234yf /HFC-134a, 24.3/24.7/25.3/25.7 % by weight, is considered to be a suitable alternative in new and existing commercial medium and low temperature refrigeration systems.

The conversion was part of the groups target to reduce its environmental impact by reducing its overall emissions, from refrigerant leaks and from those related to the energy consumption from refrigeration systems.

Source: Cooling Post

2015 : HFCs CONTRIBUTE UNDER 0.9 % TO ATMOSPHERIC GREENHOUSE GASES

The US NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has released its 2015 update of the AGGI (Annual Greenhouse Gas Index), intended to follow the evolution of the radiative forcing (ability of all greenhouse gases to trap heat) of greenhouse gases.

See footnote.

The HFC impact in 2015, slightly higher than in 2014, is about 0.84 % of the total. If proposals for an international HFC phase-down are adopted, this contribution will fall.

By contrast, the contribution of the five more important greenhouse gases account for around 96 % of the total impact. CO2, by far the largest contributor to the AGGI in terms of both amount and rate of increase, represent 65%, N2O 6.4 %, CH4 17%, CFC 11 and 12 7.5 % of all emissions.

The remaining 4% is contributed by the 15 minor halogenated gases, which are HFCs 134a, 152a, 23, 143a, and 125, SF6 , ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances) CFC-113, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFCs 22, 141b and 142b, and Halons 1211, 1301 and 2402.

Newsletter June2016_Graphic1 Global average abundances

Figure : Global average abundances of the major greenhouse gases – CO2 (in ppm), methane and N2O (in ppb),CFC-12, CFC-11, HCFC-22 and HFC-134a (in ppt).  

The total radiative forcing increased 37 % from 1990 to 2015 (by ~0.81 watts m-2), and CO2 has accounted for nearly 80% of this increase (~0.65 watts m-2). The CFC PHASE OUT, and the substitution of CFCs and HCFCs, notably by HFCs, avoided an additional 0.3 W m-2 of global radiative forcing. This has avoided an additional increase of more than half of the increase in radiative forcing due to CO2 alone since 1990.

Newsletter June 2016 Grahic2 AGGI Share of the long lived

Figure : Share of the long-lived, well-mixed greenhouse gases. The impacts from PFCs and SF6 are too low to appear on this scale of graph.  

Source : AGGI and Private Communication (for the 15 minor gases)  

Note : The results reported here are based mainly on atmospheric measurements of long-lived, well mixed gases and have small uncertainties. They encompass all emissions of greenhouse gases, including those from countries that do not report under the Rio Convention.

ADVANCED HFC-134A AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR THE BRUSSELS ENGIE TOWER

Two HFC-134a high-performance turbo-compressors power the Brussels Engie Tower (previously called GDF Suez Tower) air conditioning system. They are almost 50% more efficient than conventional cooling equipment, and can also be used as a heat pump for recovering lost heat, which is then fed back into the heating circuit.

Free cooling is used to reduce power consumption in winter and as soon as the air temperature falls below 10°C, by using fresh air from outside the building instead of running the air conditioning units. And during the summer, night-time ventilation can dissipate the heat that has built up inside the building during the day.

In addition, renewable energy has been provided to the system thanks to 189 geothermal wells drilled under the building to a depth of 92 m. These provide an average renewable energy output equivalent to 1.4 GWh, 50% of the building’s 3 GWh heating requirements in the winter and 2.4 GWh cooling in the summer.

Source : Cooling Post and Engie-Electrabel

ANOTHER BLEND FOR REPLACING R-410A

In addition to already investigated blends in the search for a lower GWP alternative to R-410A (GWP = 2,088) in air conditioning systems, such as blends of around 72 % HFC-32 and 28 % of HFO-1234yf or HFO-1234zeE, another blend has now been proposed, composed of HFC-32/HFC-125/HFO-1234yf (67 / 7 / 26 % weight), with a GWP of 698 (using the F-Gas Regulation GWP rules).

The blend is said to deliver improved energy efficiency and excellent performance at high ambient temperatures. It is mildly flammable (A2L classification) but shows a slower burning velocity and higher minimum ignition energy requirement when compared to R32.

It is expected that further AHRI research will help industry to understand the comparative risk of using A2L refrigerants with those used today.

Source : Cooling post

ANTARCTIC OZONE HOLE 2015 LARGER THAN THE AVERAGE BECAUSE OF VERY LOW STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES

The size of the 2015 Antarctic Ozone Hole was the third largest on record in the 1991-2014 period, and lasted an extra two weeks in October.

It started rather late and reached a size of 28.2 million km2 on October 2nd, 2015, close to the maximum observed of 28.75 million km2.

This large and persistent ozone hole was due to unusually low stratospheric temperatures that – instead of increasing after the polar night – suddenly dropped down to 181.9 K on October 3rd, about 8 K lower than the 1979-2014 average, and remained close to the long term minimum values for weeks. These very low temperatures are themselves explained by the persistence of a very stable vortex, which would prevent warmer air to enter the stratosphere above the pole.

Newsletter December 2015 - Picture 1 2015 Southern Hemisphere Ozone Hole Area

The 2015 NOAA Ozone Depleting Gas Index (ODGI) presents a continuous decrease since 2002 for the Antarctic atmosphere, and still projects the recovery of the ozone layer to occur around 2070 in the Antarctic and in mid-latitudes around 2045.

Newsletter December 2015 Picture 2 NOAA Ozone Depleting As Indeg ODGI

Sources : Nasa and Research Gate.net

ANTARCTIC OZONE LAYER STARTS TO MEND

Researchers have demonstrated that, following the decrease of the atmospheric concentrations of ODS (ozone depleting substances), the antarctic ozone layer has begun to mend.

Compared to its largest area in 2000, the September ozone hole has actually shrunk by 4 million km2. The researchers model, which separates the effect of ODS from those of weather and volcanic emissions, that also influence the ozone layer, confirmed that this decrease was due to the decrease of the stratospheric chlorine loading (figure 2 from the NOAA Ozone Depleting Gas Index ODGI page).

The model also helped to explain the anomalously large October 2015 ozone hole, which was primarily due to the Calbuco (Chile) volcanic eruption in April 2015 that filled the atmosphere with sulfur particles, triggering ozone-destroying reactions.

Contrary to most studies which focus on the October situation, when the ozone hole is at its largest, but also subject to other factors than stratospheric chlorine, the researchers looked at September, when sunlight is back after winter and chemical reactions start to influence the ozone layer. They showed that the rate at which the hole opens up in September has slowed down as the stratospheric chlorine has decreased, which explains why the hole is appearing now around ten days later than in earlier years.

Source: MIT News

Austria: HFOs – Regulatory position

Following inquiries by end users of low GWP Fluorocarbon solutions, EFCTC has received a clarification from the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management on the regulatory position of HFOs. The uncertainty arose from the definition of HFCs in Ordinance BGBI. II Nr. 447/2002. According to this definition, HFCs are defined as ‘any organic compound that consists solely of Carbon, Hydrogen and Fluorine with a maximum of 6 Carbon atoms per molecule’, and therefore it theoretically could include HFOs. The Austrian Federal Ministry has now confirmed to EFCTC that ‘HFOs are not classified as fluorinated greenhouse gases“ – due to their very low GWP which is comparable to that of normal hydrocarbons.’ Consequently, HFOs are not subject to any of the use restrictions under the Austrian Ordinance.

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FETA PUBLISHES GUIDANCE NOTE ON A2L (MILDLY FLAMMABLE) REFRIGERANTS

The British FETA (Federation of Environmental Trade Associations) has published a guidance document on A2L (mildly flammable) refrigerants, used in Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps .

As the EU F-Gas Regulation no 517 (2014) is restricting the use of HFCs having a GWP higher than 2,500, both by use bans and by their progressive phase-down, newly developed refrigerants with lower GWPs are being introduced on the market, from which many exhibit a low flammability (ASHRAE Class A2L). It has therefore been considered useful to compile the existing knowledge about these refrigerants, in order to allow their safe use in a wide range of applications.

BRITISH BREWERY AFTER A FATAL AMMONIA ACCIDENT GETS AN HSE IMPROVEMENT NOTICE

A British Brewery has been issued with an Improvement Notice by the British Health and Safety Executive following a serious ammonia accident.

The Improvement Notice issued against the company relates to not having made “a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks of health and safety of persons from the use of dangerous refrigerant gases namely Anhydrous Ammonia”.

Source: Cooling Post

BRITISH HEAT PUMP PRODUCT OF THE YEAR FOR AN INNOVATIVE HFC BASED AIR SOURCE AIR PUMP

A new generation of R-410A based air source heat pumps got the British Heat Pump Product of the Year 2016 award.

The new model incorporates a new plate heat exchanger in a domestic cylinder – instead of an internal coil – helps improve efficiency, speed up tank heat-up times, removes volume displacement from the coil and helps reduce running costs.

Hot water efficiency is expected to improve by 15% in heating up (10ºC to 55ºC) and by 20% in recharging (40ºC to 55ºC).   A 4kW unit is designed specifically for the new-build sector, where the hot water requirement is the dominant load.

Source : Manufacturer information  

CFCS AND HCS MUST BE JOINTLY RECOVERED TO MINIMIZE THE CARBON FOOTPRINT FROM THE DISMANTLING OF 25 MILLIONS REFRIGERATION APPLIANCES

The German “RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment” considers essential to recover jointly CFCs and HCs (hydrocarbons) from dismantled refrigeration appliances, in order to minimize the carbon footprint from these refrigeration appliances.

The recommended joint treatment eliminates the risk of unintentionally contaminating HC processing streams with incorrectly sorted appliances containing CFCs or HFCs. Experts argue strongly against attempting to treat CFC/HFC-appliances and HC-appliances in separate processing streams and, most especially, against processing HC-appliances in an open shredder, which might release incorrectly present CFC/HFC appliances.

An estimated  25 million older refrigeration appliances, containing CFCs or HFCs, are still in use within the European Union. The EU WEEE Regulation requires recovering refrigerants and blowing agents at their end-of-life dismantling, to prevent their release to the atmosphere, avoiding the high climate impact of CFC emissions.

Source: Recycling Portal

“CHEMICAL” AND “NATURAL” REFRIGERANTS

In a paper published in ACR News – April 2016, addressing the signification of “chemical” or “natural” refrigerants, a British Professor concludes that “the term ‘natural’ applied to refrigerants is an ideological obfuscation. To meet the considerable danger of anthropological global warming, we consider that all refrigerant options, both so-called ‘ natural ‘ fluid and ‘ synthetic’ HFOs , are needed to facilitate the transition to a ‘low carbon’ technology as quickly and as safely as possible.”

The author states that the distinction between ‘chemical’ refrigerants and ‘ natural ‘ refrigerants is technically meaningless in chemical terms, since ammonia and carbon dioxide are manufactured from methane in large chemical plants, so they are just as much ‘synthetic chemicals’ as fluorocarbons.

It stresses also that ‘natural’ also implies to the general public that products are intrinsically safe, but this is manifestly not the case of ammonia and hydrocarbons, with regular reports in the press of accidents. On the other hand, fluorocarbons present a very low hazard and even the marginal flammability HFO-1234yf is at low risk in this sense.

 

Source: ACR News

CLIMATE MITIGATION POLICIES MUST FOCUS IN PARALLEL ON HFCS AND ON CO2 SAYS AN ACADEMIC STUDY

Considering the role of SLCP (short-life climate pollutants, i.e. CH4, black carbon, tropospheric ozone and HFCs) in climate mitigation strategies, a recent academic study concluded that “Parallel strategies must focus on long- and short-lived pollutants, but not at the cost of reducing pressure for action on CO2.”

The study explains that focusing on these SCLPs could inhibit actions to slow the growth of fossil CO2 emissions, resulting in a higher peak temperature overall.

SLCPs have indeed an important climate impact, but as they persist in the atmosphere for only a short time—days to weeks for black carbon, a decade for CH4, and 14 years for the most prevalent HFC, HFC-134a, immediate reductions in SLCPs will result in relatively immediate climate benefits.

In contrast, CO2 has a very long atmospheric lifetime; more than 20% will remain for thousands to tens of thousands of years (note 1)

Initiatives for reducing SCLPs alone exist – for example HFCs can be regulated through the Montreal protocol – which would be able to slow the rate of warming in the first half of this century. But if such initiatives were to avoid international pressure to reduce CO2emissions, this would only trade the benefit for reducing SCLPs reduction for a steeper rise in temperature thereafter.

According to the authors, the only way to minimize the peak warming this century is to reduce in parallel the emissions of CO2 and of SLCPs. See the figure, which shows that the curve in red (CO2 and SCLP mitigation) gives the lowest temperature increase

This conclusion contradicts previous papers written by one of the co-authors (note 2), which restricted policies to mitigate climate change to SCLP or HFC reduction policies only.

May_Newsletter_graph5__climate_temperature

EFCTC position : EFCTC supports an HFC phase down as prescribed by the forthcoming EU F-Gas Regulation Review, but reminds that reducing CO2 emissions by maintaining or improving energy efficiency should be required objective.

  1. The millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2 D. Archer, V. Brovkin, Clim. Change 90, 283 (2008). DOI 10.1007/s10584-008-9413-1
  2. Mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants slows sea-level rise. Hu A., Xu Y., Tebaldi C., Washington W.M., Ramanathan V.
    Nature Climate Change, DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1869 (14/03/2013).The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change. Xu Y., Zaelke D., Velders G.J.M., Ramanathan V.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13:6083-9 (2013)

COMMISSION RELEASES FOUR F-GAS REGULATION IMPLEMENTING REGULATIONS

The EU Commission has published in November 2015 four new implementing Regulations to the F-Gas Regulation EC 517 (2014) relevant to air conditioning, refrigeration, heat pump and electrical equipment sectors.

Labelling obligations Implementing regulation EC 2068 (2015) repeals Regulation (EC) No 1494/2007.

Harmonisation of certification across different Member States

Implementing Regulation EC 2065 (2015) repeals Regulation (EC) No 308/2008.

Minimum requirements for individual certification

Implementing Regulation EC 2067 (2015) for stationary air conditioning, refrigeration, heat pump equipment, refrigerated trucks and trailers, repeals Regulation (EC) No. 303/2008.

Implementing Regulation EC 2066 (2015) for the electrical equipment sector, repeals Regulation EC 305 (2008).

More information here (ACR Journal)  and on the F-Gas Regulation Page.

COMPUTER RADIOGRAPHY FOR THE LEAKAGE CONTROL OF HIGH VOLTAGE SWITCHGEARS

An X-Ray technique called Computer radiography has been developed in order to inspect High Voltage switchgears.

The technique, avoiding an invasive inspection, allows service engineers to see inside the switchgears without service interruption and the need for the insulating gas SF6 to be degassed, collected and recycled.

High Voltage switchgears in electrical networks require regular inspections to avoid the risk of unexpected malfunctions and loss of electricity supply. Computer radiography helps to obtain detailed information on equipment condition before their possible failure, and for the planning of maintenance and replacement tasks.

Source: Process and Control Today news 

Council adopts regulation on fluorinated greenhouse gases

Find here the text.

Accompanying documents:

PE-CONS 1/14 COR 1

7929/14ADD1

The final text will be published on the Official Journal soon.
It  will enter into force twenty days after the publication.

See also the European Council Position Paper.

CUSTOM TRAINING MATERIAL TO FIGHT ILLEGAL TRADE

OzonAction, a branch of UNEP’s DTIE (Division of Technology, Industry and Economics), has produced a useful and comprehensive Training Manual for Customs Officers, in order to provide Customs Officers guidance and information in order to help them to understand some complex issues associated with ozone depleting substances (ODS), among them is how to effectively fight illegal trade.

The Manual includes information on the international policy context, among them the various ODS traded, their Harmonized System codes, the licensing systems and other relevant information.

DANISH EPA ISSUES DETAILED REPORT ON FLUOROCARBONS

In its recent report “Survey of selected fluorinated greenhouse gases”, the Danish Environment Protection Agency 2015 takes into account the qualities of HFCs, mentioning that “Generally F-gases are gases or volatile liquids at room temperature, thermal and chemical stable, with very low toxicity and with favourable environmental profile apart from their global warming potential”.

They also confirm EFCTC’s position on TFA from fluorocarbons by saying that “No toxic effects of degradation products have been identified, including trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) which is a degradation product of some HFOs and HFCs.

TFA is a highly persistent pollutant that appears to be a naturally occurring chemical present in seawater and significant concentrations have been found in rain, river and lake water and both coastal and deep-ocean sea water.

The oceans are thus a large reservoir for TFA and the observed concentrations are far in excess of those that could occur as a result of atmospheric oxidation of man-made fluorocarbons.”

The agency also quotes EFCTC research on refrigerants accidents : “The European Fluorocarbons Technical Committee (EFCTC) has on their web-site recently published a factsheet regarding published refrigerant related accidents. Based on a 2006-2013 Google search 981 injuries and 95 fatalities related to refrigerant accidents could be identified. These statistics were dominated by ammonia. One fatality due to a fluorocarbon accident is reported.”

Source: pp. 7, 10 and 88 – Danish Ministry of the Environment – EPA

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ACCOUNT FOR NEARLY 50% OF GLOBAL HFC EMISSIONS

A scientific paper on HCFCs and HFCs emissions has compared global emissions calculated from atmospheric measurements with HFC emissions reported annually by UNFCCC Annex 1 Parties (developed countries and those with economies in transition).
The results show that “unreported emissions” have increased rapidly over time and, by 2012, accounted for nearly 50% of global HFC emission.
In particular, HFC-134a reported emissions from Annex 1 Parties have been stabilizing since 2007, while global emissions are increasing (figure).
According to the authors, these discrepancies suggest that HFC emissions from developing countries (non-Annex I Parties, which don’t report emissions to the UNFCCC) have increased rapidly over time and, by 2012, accounted for nearly 50% of global HFC emissions.
Source : Recent Trends in Global Emissions of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Hydrofluorocarbons: Reflecting on the 2007 Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE HFC BASED ORC TURBINE ADDRESSING THE MARKET FOR SMALL TO MEDIUM SIZE WASTE HEAT ENERGY RECOVERY

A French startup has developed an innovative very compact micro-turbine, based on an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle), able to recover energy from smaller sources than traditional larger ORC projects.

The module is available for a range of 5 to 100 kW power generation and uses different HFC working fluids (HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc) for different temperatures, ranging from 80 to 500 C.

The ORC microturbine allows production of electricity by recovering waste heat and improving by 5 to 10 % the thermal efficiency of combustion engines that power generator groups, sea, river or road transport, or from cogeneration units.

Source: Manufacturer Information

DISPLAY CABINETS R407F REFRIGERANT SELECTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY REASONS

A British refrigerated display cabinets manufacturer has decided to replace R404A models with a new more efficient versions using R407F.

While the new models are initially only an option, the manufacturer plans to completely replace R404A in its range of open-chill and glass-door cabinets with R407F.

Besides energy savings that can reach 33 %, R407F was chosen because of its lower GWP (note) and its safety advantage over hydrocarbons.

For example, in glass-door cabinets, even a minor leak of hydrocarbon refrigerant cannot dissipate and a potentially explosive atmosphere could be created and persist. The resulting risk of ignition would therefore require strict safety rules to be followed, unlike the situation with an HFC.

According to the manufacturer, it would be very difficult to anticipate and satisfy safety requirements where hydrocarbons are used in glass-door cabinets.

Note : The GWP of R404A is 3,784, while R407F has a GWP of 1,705.

Source: Cooling Post

EFCTC Online Survey

Go to the survey.

EFCTC Position on the Paris via Montreal Article in the Economist 20.09.2014

EFCTC welcomes the way the article “Paris via “Montreal in the edition of September 20th, 2014 brings the debate on the role of fluorocarbons in climate change to wider audience. EFCTC strongly supports the inclusion of HFCs and other F-gases in the Montreal Protocol as a means of limiting their climate impact but we feel that there are some issues that need to be clarified.

 

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF HVAC EQUIPMENT SUFFERS DUE TO POOR INSTALLATION

A recent study from the US NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) “Sensitivity analysis of installation faults on heat pump performance”, quantifying efficiency losses due to common installation errors, has concluded that improper installation could increase household energy use for space heating and cooling by the order of 30 percent over what it should be.

Benefits of improved energy efficiency ratings could be lost if the equipment is not installed properly. The majority of air-conditioning equipment evaluated in the field performed below rated energy-efficiency levels due to one or more installation faults.

Leaky air ducts emerged as the “dominant fault.” Refrigerant undercharge and incorrect indoor airflow due to improperly sized ductwork followed as the most significant causes of increased energy use. The study emphasizes that sizing, selecting, and installing HVAC equipment according to industry-recognized procedures is critical to ensuring expected energy efficiency.

Source: NIST – Engineering Laboratory

ENERGY EFFICIENT HFO/CO2 CASCADE FOR AN ITALIAN SUPERMARKET

An Italian supermarket has installed a HFO-1234ze/CO2 cascade system with heat recovery which is saving about 35 % energy in comparison with conventional installations.

Instead of installing three separate refrigeration, heating and air conditioning systems, the cascade system is designed to provide in one system the heating, air conditioning and cooling needs, as the energy generated by the refrigeration system is transferred by a heat exchanger in order to heat the store, provide hot water, and cool the store in the summer.

HFO-1234ze is used as the primary refrigerant for cooling liquid CO2 in the medium temperature network, and cascaded to the low temperature CO2 refrigeration system.

Source :RAC

ERRATUM

The attentive reader has certainly read: A blend containing mainly HFO-1123 (1,1,2 – Trifluoroethene, CHF=CF2) is proposed to replace R-410A in stationary air conditioning. The blend has a GWP (and not ODP) of 350, one sixth of R-410A. Thanks for your understanding.

European HFC Producers support action under the Montreal Protocol for a consumption cap and reduction of HFCs

Full Position paper

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT/COUNCIL AGREEMENT ON THE REVISION OF THE F-GAS REGULATION

The final agreed text for the F-Gas Regulation review was approved by Member States Ambassadors on 17th December 2013. It will be sent to the Parliament and Council for final approval.
EFCTC has released “Brief Notes on European Parliament/Council agreement on the revision of the F-gas regulation”

The Regulation establishes the following:

  • Cap and phase-down for the placing on the market of HFCs.
  • Bans or restrictions based on GWP of the use of F-gases in some new equipment, such as refrigerators and air conditioners, insulating foams and technical aerosols.
  • Conditions (for example, reporting on quantities of HFCs contained and the need for HFC import quotas) on the placing on the market of products and equipment containing or relying upon F-gases.
  • Future restrictions on servicing/maintenance of equipment using HFCs.
  • Rules regarding containment, use, recovery and destruction of HFCs.

The Regulation will apply from 1 January 2015.

The aim of the agreed regulation is to reduce F-gas emissions by two-thirds of today’s levels by 2030 and to encourage the use of viable and more climate-friendly alternatives where they are readily available.

 

F-GAS LEGISLATION ENTERS INTO FORCE

The revised F-gas Regulation 517 (2014), repealing the former Regulation 842 (2006) was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 20 May 2014.

It will enter into force 20 days after its publication, and shall apply from 1 January 2015. In addition to the legal text, the European Commission is now preparing the necessary implementing acts in order to make sure that the Regulation will be properly applicable by January. Additional national measures will be needed to implement, among others, its provisions on penalties for non-compliance.

The Regulation establishes the following main measures:

  • Cap and phase-down for the placing on the market of HFCs (in tons of CO2 equivalent), with a freeze in 2015 followed by a first reduction in 2016-2017, and reaching 21 percent of the levels placed on the market in 2009-2012 by 2030.
  • Bans or restrictions based on GWP of the use of F-gases in some new equipment, such as refrigerators and air conditioners, insulating foams and technical aerosols.
  • Conditions (for example, reporting on quantities of HFCs contained and the need for HFC import quotas) on the placing on the market of products and equipment containing or relying upon F-gases.
  • Future restrictions on servicing/maintenance of equipment using HFCs.
  • Rules regarding containment, use, recovery and destruction of HFCs.

The aim of the agreed regulation is to reduce F-gas emissions by two-thirds of today’s levels by 2030 and to encourage the use of viable and lower GWP alternatives where they are readily available.

 

“F-GAS SOLUTIONS”, AN APPLICATION HELPING TO IMPLEMENT THE F-GAS REGULATION, RECEIVES A BRITISH INDUSTRY AWARD

A French application, designed to help F-Gas users to implement the F-Gas Regulation 517/2014, won the 2015 Cooling Industry Award “Refrigeration Product of the Year – Component or accessories”.

It was praised for delivering genuinely useful information in a readily accessible form, offering a range of useful tools for tackling the Regulation regime, and for being available in 7 languages (Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish).

Recently updated to cover HCFC-22 replacement, it provides simple answers to questions like the GWP of the refrigerant used in an installation, the CO2 tonnes-eq for a given refrigerant charge, the leak detection threshold level, and the prescribed leak detection frequency.

The Application gives, for any application, information on which refrigerants are acceptable, and on forthcoming bans or restrictions.

It covers all types of refrigerant installations, all types of equipments, and all types of refrigerants available on the market and having an ASHRAE number.

Source : Producer information

F-GAS USAGE IN EUROPE IN 2013 CONTINUES TO DECREASE

According to data published by the European Environment Agency (EEA) Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases 2013 the trend of F-Gases put on the EU market shows a further decline, for the third consecutive year since 2010, both in terms of metric tonnes (from 92 425 metric tonnes to 81 545) and CO2-equivalents (from 229.6 to 199.8 Mt CO2-eq).

Use of F-gases by EU industry fell by 2.4 % (metric tonnes) and 1.4% (CO2-eq) compared to 2012. This trend is mainly due to a HFC decrease of 2.4 % (metric tonnes) or 1.9 % (CO2-eq).

HFCs constitute 98 % of the F-Gas use in 2013, or 82 % in CO2-eq, SF6 use represents 18 % in CO2-eq, and PFC contributes to less than 1 % of the total F-gas use.

Use continues to be dominated by refrigeration and air conditioning. Foams and aerosols sectors are also significant in terms of their use of HFC in metric tonnes, while over 2007-13 there has been a strong decrease in the use of HFCs for foam.

F-Gases EU emissions still represent around 2 % from EU total GHG emissions.

November_2013_Figure_1_Shares of intended applications

FIRST R 134A/CO2 CASCADE REFRIGERATION FOR A FRENCH ICE RINK

The Alpe d’Huez (French Alps) ice rink has recently been completely renovated, and the former HCFC-22 refrigeration system replaced by a cascade system HFC-134a/CO2.

Ammonia could not be usned, because of the proximity of the rink with habitations and vacation homes.

This ice rink has the peculiarity of being uncovered and runs also in summer. CO2 had therefore the advantage of allowing a steep temperature decrease, able to compensate for increased heat contribution.

The work included the replacement of the cooling system and also the rehabilitation of runway beam and therefore of the concrete slab. The slab itself is installed on top of a parking lot.

The new system is designed with a first stage delivering 800kW with 400kg of HFC-134a, and the second stage delivering 600 kW with 6 tonnes of CO2 as refrigerant.

Energy from the high pressure circuit condensation is recovered and supplies heat to :

  • 3 exchangers installed in the parking lot to preserve it from freezing,
  • 1 exchanger installed in a snow pit, where snow from the rink track surfacing is melting.

The rink of Alpe d’Huez, dimensions of 56 m x 26 m, is situated at 1,850 m altitude.

Source (in French): The RPF.fr

FLORENCE ART GALLERY HEATING ANG COOLING PROVIDED BY R-410A HEAT PUMPS

A contemporary art gallery in Florence has installed 2 multi-purpose R-410A based heat pumps for the simultaneous heating and cooling of its recent building expansion.

The heat pumps deliver 416 kW cooling capacity and 438 kW heating capacity. They can work in cooling only, heating only, and simultaneous heating and cooling mode, to meet the building’s year-round needs.

Water from an artesian well is used as heat source, and waste energy from the heat pump condensers is used, maximizing the building’s energy efficiency.
Air conditioning for art galleries are designed to address humidity and temperature control, to protect the exhibited artwork and limit noise.

Source : ACR Journal

FLUOROCARBON BLENDS GIVE THE LOWEST LCCP AS R410A REPLACEMENT

Comparing lower GWP (Global Warming Potential) alternatives for a 10 kW R-410A Heat pump, a study carried on by the IIR (International Institute of Refrigeration) Working Group on LCCP (Life Cycle Climate Performance) Evaluation concluded that blends of HFC-32 with HFOs (GWP around 500) had a lower LCCP than HFC-32 or propane R-290.

Energy consumption was calculated using the AHRTI LCCP tool with the performance information from Alternative Refrigerants
Evaluation Program (AREP) Report #22, and average leakage rates were from UNEP Technical Options Committee 2002 report and ICCP Fourth assessment report (2007). It was noted that leakage rates have dropped over the last decade and continue to drop, and that the values used should be updated as new information becomes available.

The two refrigerant blends contained around 72 % HFC-32 and HFO-1234yf or HFO-1234zeE.

In case of the lower GWP alternatives, total lifetime GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions due to energy consumption represented from 95.5 % to 98.7% of total emissions. The authors noted that, for this reason, the most effective way to reduce emissions is to increase the energy efficiency of the unit.

FRENCH HVAC REFRIGERANTS RECOVERY MANAGEMENT COULD PREVENT THE EMISSION OF 68 M TONNES CO2-EQUIVALENT UNTIL 2030

During the Montreal Protocol’s OEWG 38 in Vienna (Austria), the French association ADC3R (“Association des distributeurs, conditionneurs, récupérateur et retraiteurs de refrigerants” : distributors, conditioning, recovery and recycling operators) presented in a side event the French end of life management system for fluorinated refrigerants, considered unique internationally, which involves all stakeholders in the supply, collection and recycling chain.

By compiling available data, starting in 1993 with a voluntary approach, covering at the beginning CFCs, then HCFCs, and finally HFCs, the quantities of refrigerants recovered and recycled have been assessed. Transposing these quantities into tonnes CO2-equivalent showed that the French recovery management system has been able to avoid the emissions of an estimate 45 M tonnes CO2-equivalent between 1993 and 2013.

French authorities intend to improve and intensify their commitment to reducing emissions of fluorinated refrigerants throughout the supply chain, with the objective to reach by 2030 the amount of 68 M tonnes of CO2-equivalent emissions avoided.

The analysis relates only to France, as Europe data compilation attempts proved unsuccessful until now.

Newsletter September 2016

Source (in French): laRPF.fr (in French)

FRENCH REPORT ON REFRIGERANTS LEAK DETECTION SYSTEMS

The French ADEME has released an in-depth study on installed fluorocarbons refrigerants leak detection systems (Etude sur les moyens de detection de fuite des installations de refrigeration de climatisation), mandated by AFCE and conducted by ARMINES and EReIE, on installed fixed refrigerants leak detection systems.

Two systems have been investigated : gas detectors and “expert systems” ( based on indirect detection methods, incorporating plant parameters such as temperature, pressure or tank level measurements).

The study gives recommendations for the best choice of a leak detector, which depends on the installed systems, for example gas detectors for chillers rooms (able to detect leaks of 50g/h) or expert systems for commercial refrigeration systems (able to detect leaks of less than 100 g/h over a few days).

Detection of leakages is mandated in the F-Gas Regulation and limiting leakages is become even more important since the HFC phase down dictated by that Regulation will significantly reduce the availability of fluids for refilling.

Source: iifiir Institut International du Froid

FRENCH STUDY ON REFRIGERANT CONTAINMENT

A French study, based on a literature review and a questionnaire sent to stakeholders, has been conducted to investigate the containment for refrigeration plants.

The study was initially based on an in-depth literature review of good practices in containment for a wide range of equipment, stimulated following the publication of the F-Gas Regulation in 2006, and intensified thanks to the REALZero (2009) and REALSkills (2011) projects. However, besides good practices, little has been published on the subject of leaks and leakage rate, and answers to an online questionnaire were used to analyze leak rates and frequency.

The survey shows that leakage rate depends upon the refrigeration technology used. Direct expansion systems are more subject to leakage. The issue lies not in the components but on their assembly.

An important finding refers to the fact that the impact of leakage on the environment is, to a great extent, due to relatively few large leaks rather than a multitude of small leaks. Leaks in the range of 5 g/yr (standard minimum detection level), which account for 57% of all leakage incidents, represent only 1.12% of the yearly estimated refrigerant leakage. In contrast, large leaks of over 500g/yr, which account for only 4% of all leakage incidents, represent 91.6% of the total quantity.

Source: Cooling Post

Global Fluorocarbons Producers Forum launches informational website

The new website’s domain is www.GFPF-forum.org

 

GREENFACTS PUBLICATION ON THE EVOLUTION OF OZONE LAYER DEPLETION, ITS IMPACT ON CLIMATE CHANGE, HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Greenfacts, a non-profit project with an independent Scientific Board and a non-advocacy policy, has recently published online “The evolution of ozone layer depletion, its impact on climate change, health and the environment” a neutral summary of the Ozone Science, synthesizing most recent UNEP and EEA (European Environment Agency) Reports that address the recovery of the ozone layer, its state and its links to climate change.

The report is designed to help readers by structuring information levels : a short Highlights for the fast reader is further developed into a Long Summary.

The publication has been peer reviewed under the independent Scientific Committee.

HBFO-1233XFB AS A FIRE EXTINGUISHER AGENT

A new fluoro-olefin, HBFO-1233xfB (CF3CBr=CH2 or 2-bromo-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, shortened as 2-BTP), has been proposed by the US EPA as a drop-in replacement for Halon 1211 Fire extinguishing agent on aircrafts, based on its calculated GWP of 0.23-0.26.

The EPA is proposing 2-BTP on aircraft, acceptable as a total flooding agent as a streaming agent for use in handheld extinguishers. Other additional potential fire suppression applications for 2-BTP could be envisaged.

Source: SNAP

HEAT PUMPS ENERGY USE REDUCTION IS KEY TO LOWERING THEIR TOTAL CLIMATE IMPACT

A Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) study of three different Residential Heat Pumps models, comparing R410A, HFC-134a and HFO-1234yf, has shown that the direct impact of refrigerant leakage and end-of-life loss is respectively only 7.6, 5.3 and <1 % of their total climate impact.

Reducing the indirect impact of energy consumption is therefore the key to lowering the equipment total impact on climate change.

A comparison of the results for the same Heat pump in different locations shows large differences in total lifetime CO2 emissions, from 42.500 to 110.000 kg CO2, due to factors such as the local climate, the average temperatures and the CO2/kWh factor.

The LCCP model gives consistent results for different scenarios. Besides the indirect effect of energy consumption and the direct effect of refrigerant leakage and end-of-life loss, it appears that all other elements (equipment manufacturing, etc.) are negligible for the LCCP evaluation.

Another LCCP study, comparing Residential Air Source Heat Pumps, has also drawn the attention to the variation in indirect emissions between different locations.

HEATING A GERMAN INDUSTRY HALL WITH A HFC CHILLER

A HFC based VRV (Variable refrigerant volume) chiller, working as heat pump,  has been installed to provide underfloor heating for a new industrial hall at a leading German manufacturer of temporary tent structures (used in many different market segments, such as events and the hospitality industry, for the sports sector and industry).

Due to the lower temperatures required for the underfloor heating, an air-cooled VRV Chiller was the preferred solution, on economic and environmental grounds. The chiller CO2 emissions are 33 % lower than with an oil heater. The heat for the hall – 3800 m2 large and 8 m high – and the 600 m2 attached offices, is provided by three 75 kW split chillers running independently. The advantage of split chillers is having the heating water heat exchange inside the building.

The system operates in an outside temperature range from -15 C to +43 C, and inverter controlled VRV chillers are able to adjust constantly to the heating demand, ensuring high comfort while keeping energy load minimal.

Source (in German – requires subscription): Die Kaelte

HELSINKI HFC-134A BASED DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING PLANT GETS SIGNIFICANT EXPANSION

The Helsinki HFC-134a based District Heating and Cooling system has been expanded to become fully integrated by the addition of two new heat pumps delivering together 15 MW of cooling and 22 MW of heating.

After expansion the heating (90MW) and cooling (60MW) plant will deliver an overall energy saving of 80%.

The fully integrated District Heating and Cooling system will recover heat from renewable sources including seawater for both heating and cooling, sewage water and even the buildings themselves as effective solar collectors.

The facility excavated under the Katri Vala Park houses the world’s largest heat pump plant, producing district heat and cooling in a single process.

Source: Helen.fi

HFC BASED AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP CLAIMED TO BE THE MOST EFFICIENT

New models of HFC based domestic air/water heat pump have been presented, claiming to present the highest possible seasonal performance on the market.

Using R-410A as a working fluid, the heat pump is using a bespoke inverter compressor, increasing energy efficiency and comfort. All component parts within the machine have been optimized, bringing the COP of the largest heat pump to 4.08 with an air temperature of -2 °C.

The heat pumps can deliver water at 65 °C instead of the commonly achieved 50 °C, therefore avoiding anti-legionella specific measures.

Source: ACR – Heat Pumps Today

HFC BASED CHILLERS FOR A NORWEGIAN BERGEN RAILWAY STATION OFFICES AIR CONDITIONING

For the air conditioning of the new Bergen (Norway) railway station offices, HFC-134a large size chillers and R-410A medium size chillers have been installed to deliver a cooling capacity of 1,200 kW.

Optimized HFC-134a chillers, fitted with high performance heat exchangers provide a EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) value up to 5.1.

Source : Manufacturer Information

HFC BASED HYBRID CHILLER FOR A BRITISH COLLEGE CENTRE

A new type of HFC-134a based hybrid chiller heat pump has been selected to provide simultaneously heating and cooling for the Kingston College’s new Creative Industries Centre in London.

Delivering a cooling capacity of 105kW, and a heating capacity of 83kW, the R-410A based chiller has separate heat exchangers for chilled and hot water production that are connected separately to their respective hot and chilled circuits by dedicated pipe work.

To achieve optimal performance, the system combines a sophisticated control system, a high efficiency heat pump chiller, a heat recovery system that automatically balances simultaneous cooling and heating demands, optimizing total energy use and heat recovery within the multi-compartment building.

The three-storey state-of-the art facility houses the college’s programmes in art and design, fashion, photography, music and games design.

Source: The ACR journal

HFC BASED ORC MACHINES SUPPLY ELECTRICITY FROM SAWMILL WASTE

A 150 kW HFC-based ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) machine has been installed to deliver uninterruptible power to a developing country sawmill, to which the electricity supply was not reliable enough.

In order to guarantee to the plant continuity of its electrical power supply, sawmill waste is burned and the resulting heat is converted by ORC machines into constant production of the electricity needed, independently from the grid.

Source : Manufacturer information

HFC BASED REPLACEMENT PROJECT FOR ONE OF THE LONDON CANARY WHARF BUILDINGS RECEIVES AN AWARD AND IS SHORTLISTED FOR TWO MORE

An HFC-134a based innovative cooling and heating project at one of the London Canary Wharf main buildings received an Award for Excellence for replacing the fresh air cooling and heating system, decreasing substantially the energy consumption while increasing capacity by 25 %.

The new system, replacing an inefficient and under-powered system, significantly reduced building running costs and energy consumption, while providing outstanding indoor comfort.

It relies on 6 high performance Air Handling Units (AHU) totaling 99 m3/sec, and 6 HFC based water/air heat pumps, totaling 2.34 MW heating capacity and 2.12 MW cooling capacity.

To minimize energy usage in heating mode, heat from the condensing water is recovered by the heat pumps for pre-heating the incoming air.

Source : Manufacturer Information

HFC BLOWN INSULATING FOAM PROVIDES ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND VISITOR COMFORT TO AN EXHIBIT HALL

The Pacific Science Center 1,900 m2 exhibit hall in Seattle (USA) has  been re-insulated to improve temperature control and energy efficiency, using sprayed HFC blown polyurethane foam. Hitherto, visitors were enduring cold temperatures during the winter, and in the summer the buildings couldn’t be cooled sufficiently.

The spray HFC foam was the best possible insulation solution for the building as it could be installed  over the existing insulation and wall structure.

With only 7.5 cm of sprayed HFC-based foam insulation on the walls and 10 cm on the 11 m high ceiling, the building achieved a 90 percent improvement in energy costs.

Source : Product manufacturer

HFC REFRIGERATION FOR THE NEW FRENCH LOUVRE-LENS MUSEUM

The Louvre-Lens, a new branch of the prestigious Paris Louvre museum has been built in Lens (Northern France). HFC-134a chillers have been installed to meet stringent requirements for a constant indoor temperature and humidity, in order to ensure the preservation of the sensitive art works in the exhibition and storage areas.

The museum is composed of five interconnected buildings, with an exhibition area of 6000 m2 where 800 important art works can be exhibited, and is expecting around 500,000 visitors annually.

A museum highlight is a 3000 m2 large “Galerie du Temps”, with a volume of around 20,000 m3, in which 220 masterpieces from different periods of art history are presented.

May_Newsletter_Picture3_Louvre_Lens

Visite presse du Louvre Lens le 03 decembre 2012 Photo : D Bokalo

Taking into account the size and the volume of the exhibition areas, 60 Air Handling Units (AHU) have been installed, which are filtering air and maintaining optimal humidity and temperature in the museum’s galleries, storage rooms and restoration workshops.

Part of the AHU have energy recovery components, such as plate heat exchangers (to recover heat from the exhaust air and to warm incoming air) or water heat-recovery coils.

Source: Die Kaelte (in German – requires subscription)

HFC REPORTED EMISSIONS GROWTH FOR ANNEX 1 COUNTRIES MUCH SLOWER SINCE 2000 – RAPID EMISSIONS GROWTH IN CHINA

A recent scientific paper shows that, while HFC emissions calculated from atmospheric measurements have grown significantly from 1995 to 2012 (up to 700 Gigatonnes/year CO2 eq.), HFC emissions reported to UNFCCC have actually shown a much slower growth since 1998-2000 (settling about 200-300 Gigatonnes/year CO2 eq.). Only so-called “Annex 1” countries (most developed countries) have been required to report their HFC emissions to UNFCCC, and the study shows that their currently reported HFC emissions represent less than half of global HFC emissions.Based on recent observations, it appears therefore that East Asia and in particular China HFC emissions have become the largest and the more rapidly growing.The paper also addresses the way to reduce HFC’s future radiative forcing, as its rapid growth from 1995 to 2012 is a matter of concern. It shows that bringing HFCs into the Montreal Protocol could lead to a decline of 26 % in HFC radiative forcing by 2050, in contrast to scenarios like Velders et al.  

HFC-134A CHILLERS REPLACING HCFC-22 UNITS FOR A BRITISH HOSPITAL

Four HFC-134a chillers totaling 1.4 MW were installed in a British hospital to replace an outdated HCFC-22 screw compressors installation.

The new chillers provide cooling for the air-handling units that serve wards, administration areas and waiting rooms.

They are connected to the hospital’s Building Management System, which controls chiller sequencing and runtime to equalize their operational hours in order to prolong their working life.

Remotely located air-cooled condensers require each chiller to be connected to its condenser by copper refrigerant pipework running beneath a road in a concrete-lined culvert. The piping, of an unusual length, is up to 75 m long and up to 92 mm diameter on the discharge and 67 mm on the liquid lines.

Source: MBS Modern Building Service- 

HFC-134A FOR BRITISH ICE RINK COOLING SYSTEMS

A British company specialized in ice rink cooling systems is using HFC-134a semi-hermetic compressors with variable speed operation for optimum energy efficiency.

The company claims their systems can halve cooling energy running costs compared with traditional refrigeration units, and is designed to deliver exceptionally reliable cooling and significantly reduced energy costs.

Reliability and efficiency are vital for ice rinks, and the system has to run 365 days a year, as it can take days for the ice to rebuild.

Several British ice rinks have already been equipped with such HFC-134a refrigeration systems.

Source: Cooling Post

HFC-134A GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS HELP REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT A FRENCH SWIMMING POOL BY A FACTOR OF FIVE

For the renovation of the the oldest Strasbourg (France) swimming pool heating system, an old gas boiler has been replaced by 2 HFC-134a geothermal heat pumps, delivering each 558 kW heating and 482 kW cooling.

Within one year functioning, the energy consumption for the swimming pool and its adjacent buildings has been divided by five.Underground water at 14-15 C is used as cold source for the heat pumps, which deliver warm water at 28 C to the 2,200 m3 swimming pool. In addition, cooled water from the cold side is reheated before returning to the underground to dehumidify the incoming air supplied to the swimming pool.

Source: GC : Génie climatique Magazine

HFC-134A GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS HELP REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT A FRENCH SWIMMING POOL BY A FACTOR OF FIVE

For the renovation of the the oldest Strasbourg (France) swimming pool heating system, an old gas boiler has been replaced by 2 HFC-134a geothermal heat pumps, delivering each 558 kW heating and 482 kW cooling.
Within one year functioning, the energy consumption for the swimming pool and its adjacent buildings has been divided by five.
Underground water at 14-15 C is used as cold source for the heat pumps, which deliver warm water at 28 C to the 2,200 m3 swimming pool. In addition, cooled water from the cold side is reheated before returning to the underground to dehumidify the incoming air supplied to the swimming pool.
Source: GC : Génie climatique Magazine

HFC-245FA FOR A LARGE FRENCH ORC GEOTHERMAL PLANT PROJECT

A French geothermal energy project called FONGEOSEC will use HFC-245fa based ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) technology to produce 5.5 MW from deep high temperature geothermal wells.

High temperature geothermal energy uses the heat of the Earth at depths of 3 to 6 kilometers. Geothermal wells capture this heat in a water loop flowing from the surface to the bottom of the wells. Hot water above 150 C feeds an ORC which will produce electricity and heat, to be used in a district heating network.

Source : Producer information

HFC-245FA OR HFO-1234ZE(E) IN AN ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE FOR ENERGY RECOVERY FROM GALVANIZING STEEL LINES

HFC-245fa and HFO-1234zeE have been selected in a research project for applying Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology to recovering heat in a galvanizing steel cooling system.

HFC-245fa has a better energy efficiency than HFO-1234ze(E) and is non flammable, while HFO-1234ze(E) is mildly flammable but has a lower expansion rate (favourable for cost reasons).

In the galvanizing process, thin (0.3 – 2.5 mm) steel sheets are coated with zinc in a bath at around 460 C. Steel sheets heat treated at 600 C for mechanical properties have to be cooled precisely down to the zinc pot temperature by jet cooling with high speed jets of a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture at 50-100 C.

The gas mixture leaves the system at 150-250 C. The ORC system will be able to recover power from the hot gas to run the large gas recirculation fan.

Source : CMI Industry Greenline

HFC-245FA ORC SYSTEM RECOVERING WASTE HEAT ABOARD LARGE SHIPS, SELECTED FOR THE EU «LEANSHIPS» RESEARCH PROJECT

An HFC-245fa based Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system is being developed as part of the UE funded “LeanShips” research project, aiming at reducing the environmental impact of large ships.

The company’s contribution to the LeanShips project is to develop an innovative heat recovery solution using the ORC technology on diesel or natural gas propulsion, for large ships, especially boats cruise and ferries.

The ORC system manufacturer has developed specific modules for the heat recovery from diesel engine exhausts of ships and freighters, improving by up to 10% the fuel economy.

Source : Manufacturer Information

HFC-245fa ORC UNITS IMPROVE COGENERATION GAS TURBINES ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SLOVAKIA

Ten new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) generators using HFC-245fa as working fluid have been installed in a Slovakian district heating plant to increase the on-site efficiency of two cogeneration gas turbines.

The turbines produce steam and warm water to feed the town’s district heating network, and the remaining lower temperature exhaust gases, that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere, are handled by ten 50 kW machines, generating low cost electric power and improving the efficiency of the whole system.

The Slovakian plant is the first in Europe to use ORC units to improve combined cycle gas turbines efficiency by recovering energy from low temperature (77-116 C) waste gases.

Source: Penn Energy

HFC-245FA ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE PROJECT FOR A SILICON PRODUCTION FURNACE FUNDED BY THE FRENCH ADEME

A HFC-245fa Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) project for a 3 MW module to be installed on a silicion production furnace has been selected to be funded by the French Energy and Environment Agency ADEME.

The installation will improve the energy efficiency of the furnace by approximately 10% producing 17 GWh of electricity per year.

Source : Manufacturer information

HFCs refrigerants retained in us air conditioners and heat pumps energy efficiency standards

The Department Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards Program was established to develop test procedures and minimum efficiency standards.During this process, refrigerant choice has been subject to screening. It appeared in this process that commercial unitary air conditioning equipment using dangerous refrigerants would likely need to include safety features to protect against the possibility of fire and explosion.New designs would have to be developed, new sensing/control capabilities to be implemented to mitigate the various risks, personnel to be trained to follow special safe handling and installation procedures, and therefore such alternative refrigerants were not considered.Source for the criteria document

HFCs REMAIN UNDER 0.8 % OF THE ATMOSPHERIC LEVEL OF ALL GREENHOUSE GASES

The US NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has released its 2014 update of the AGGI (Annual Greenhouse Gas Index), intended to follow the evolution of the radiative forcing (ability of all greenhouse gases to trap heat) of greenhouse gases.

See note.

The HFC impact still stands just below 0.8% of the total. It is anticipated that this share will hardly be higher in the future if the proposals for an international HFC phase-down will be adopted.

By contrast, the contribution of the five more important greenhouse gases account for 96 % of the total impact : CO2 65%, N2O 6%, CH4 17%, CFC 11 and 12 8 %. Other ozone depleting substances (ODS) account for most of the 3.2% remaining, after the contribution from HFCs.

The 15 minor halogenated gases, besides HFCs 134a, 152a, 23, 143a, and 125, are CFC-113, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFCs 22, 141b and 142b, SF6, and Halons 1211, 1301 and 2402.

The radiative forcing (ability of all greenhouse gases to trap heat) increased 34% from 1990 to 2013 (by ~0.74 watts m-2), CO2 has accounted for nearly 80% of this increase (~0.59 watts m-2). It is the CFC PHASE OUT, and the substitution of CFCs and HCFCs, notably by HFCs, that avoided the global radiative forcing to be even as much as 0.3 W/m2 higher, corresponding to more than half of the increase in radiative forcing due to CO2 alone since 1990.

Graph_1_Newsletter_October_2014

The Figure shows the share of the long-lived, well-mixed greenhouse gases. The impacts from PFCs and SF6 are too low to appear on this scale of graph.

Source : AGGI and Private Communication (for the 15 minor gases)  

Note : The results reported here are based mainly on atmospheric measurements of long-lived, well mixed gases and have small uncertainties. They encompass all emissions of greenhouse gases, including those from countries that do not report under the Rio Convention.

HFCS STILL CONTRIBUTE LESS THAN 0.8 % TO ATMOSPHERIC GREENHOUSE GASES

The US NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has released its 2014 update of the AGGI (Annual Greenhouse Gas Index), intended to follow the evolution of the radiative forcing (ability of all greenhouse gases to trap heat) of greenhouse gases. See footnote.

As in 2013, the HFC impact remains just below 0.8% of the total, a share that is unlikely to be higher in the future if the proposals for an international HFC phase-down are adopted.

By contrast, the contribution of the five more important greenhouse gases account for around 96 % of the total impact. CO2 , by far the largest contributor to the AGGI in terms of both amount and rate of increase, represent 65%, N2O 6.4 %, CH4 17%, CFC 11 and 12 7.7 % of all emissions.

The remaining 4% is contributed by the 15 minor halogenated gases, which, besides HFCs 134a, 152a, 23, 143a, and 125, and SF6 , are ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances) CFC-113, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFCs 22, 141b and 142b, and Halons 1211, 1301 and 2402.

Picture1_Newsletter_June2015

Figure : Global average abundances of the major greenhouse gases – CO2 (in ppm), methane and N2O (in ppb), CFC-12, CFC-11, HCFC-22 and HFC-134a (in ppt).  

In terms of CO2 equivalents, the atmosphere in 2014 contained 481 ppm, of which 397 was CO2 alone.

The total radiative forcing increased 36 % from 1990 to 2014 (by ~0.77 watts m-2), and CO2 has accounted for nearly 80% of this increase (~0.62 watts m-2). The CFC PHASE OUT, and the substitution of CFCs and HCFCs, notably by HFCs, avoided an additional 0.3 W m-2 of global radiative forcing. This has offset more than half of the increase in radiative forcing due to CO2 alone since 1990.

Picture2_Newsletter_June2015

Figure : Share of the long-lived, well-mixed greenhouse gases. The impacts from PFCs and SF6 are too low to appear on this scale of graph.  

Source : AGGI and Private Communication (for the 15 minor gases)  

Note : The results reported here are based mainly on atmospheric measurements of long-lived, well mixed gases and have small uncertainties. They encompass all emissions of greenhouse gases, including those from countries that do not report under the Rio Convention.

HFO 1234ZE(E) BASED CHILLER FOR AN INNOVATIVE DISTRICT HEATING PROJECT

Two HFO-1234zeE chillers will be installed for a new innovative district heating development project in Switzerland, with a total heating capacity of 2.5 MW.

In a first phase, waste heat from a data centre onsite will be recovered for heating offices and other facilities. In the second phase, the installation will provide heating to 3,000 individual homes within a planned residential zone.

Source : Cooling Post

HFO BLOWING AGENT FOR APPLIANCES INSULATING FOAM EU PROJECT SELECTED AMONG “BEST OF THE BEST” 2013 ENVIRONMENT PROJECTS

ENERG-ICE, an EU co-funded Energy efficiency project proposing an innovative polyurethane foaming technology for appliances insulation, using notably an HFO blowing agent, was selected as one of the six “Best of the Best” Environment and Information projects 2013.

The project focused on reducing the environmental impact of appliances, manufacturing the insulation filling of refrigerators and freezers, using a low-GWP HFO and cyclopentane as a blowing agent.

Extensive industrial tests with in real conditions showed a 11 % energy efficiency improvement with the HFO blowing agent, and 8 % with cyclopentane, compared to the best-in-class appliances available as certified by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

The ENER-ICE technology had been extensively industrially validated, with real performance testing of the foam properties and the energy efficiency of commercial appliances.

Source : European Commission ENV

HFO BLOWING AGENT SELECTED FOR INSULATING A NET-ZERO ENERGY HOUSE

HFO-1233zd-E blown polyurethane spray foam was applied to insulate a residential 1928 house, being retrofitted into a sustainable living project near the campus of Purdue University.

The wooden siding of the house was removed and insulating foam sprayed from the outside, simultaneously sealing gaps, cracks and holes as it was applied, providing optimal energy-efficient insulation.

HFO-1233zd-E blown foam has already been used for appliance insulation, following its approval by the US EPA. Its GWP was recently revised down to a value of 1 (note 1).

Purdue University project is to transform the house into a net-zero energy, waste and water world-class research laboratory, continuously monitoring the products and systems that use the home’s energy, to provide valuable insights on technologies that enable sustainable living.

Note 1 : IPCC Working Group I – The Physical Science Basis – Chap.8 Annex 8.A.1

Source : Market Watch and supplier information.

HFO BLOWN POLYURETHANE FOAM DELIVERS BREAKTHROUGH INSULATION PERFORMANCE FOR COLD STORAGE ROOMS

A new concept for polyurethane foams discontinuous panels, which are used for cold storage insulation, has been validated with the use of HFO-1233zd as blowing agent, and implemented for industrial production.

The concept of a vacuum assisted injection process had already been successfully applied for domestic appliances and was transferred to large scale production of discontinuous panels.

Key advantages of this process are technical, economical and environmental, with around 5 % improvement in thermal insulation.

Source : Producer Information

HFO CHILLER AWARD RECOGNISES ENERGY SAVING AND LOW CLIMATE IMPACT

An HFO-1234ze high performance high capacity chiller has won the CIBSE (The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers) Energy Saving of the Year 2015 Award, providing further recognition of the chiller significant energy saving and low climate impact.

The oil-free and self-optimizing chiller incorporates the ability to supply fully concurrent free-cooling, increasing energy efficiency by reducing the need for mechanical cooling, resulting in an ESEER (European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) of up to 6 and a EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) up to 4.12, delivering up to twice as much free-cooling as a conventional system.

Source: Cooling Post

HFO COMPRESSOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HOT WATER

A prototype system has been developed and tested using HFO-1234ze. It is able both to raise the temperature of food products rapidly to close to 100 °C, and to immediately cool them down to 2 °C using chilled water.

Two variable speed compressors are operated independently on the same circuit in two systems, the first one heating water from 3 to 53 °C, and the second one from 48 to 100 °C

It is normal in the food industry to recover exhaust heat from refrigeration compressors to provide hot water, and such a system could be installed in other food processing facilities.

Besides its obvious environmental qualities, HFO-1234ze was selected because of its thermodynamic properties, since ammonia (R-717) cannot reach temperatures above 80 °C, and CO2 is not energy efficient at high temperatures.

Source : Manufacturer Information

HFO-1233zd(E) BLOWN INSULATING FOAM SELECTED BY THE DUTCH WORLDS SHIPPING CONTAINERS MARKET LEADER FOR ALL ITS NEW REEFERS

After trials with HFO-1233zd(E) as polyurethane insulating foam blowing agent had shown an improved insulation performance and a lower climate impact, thanks to HFO-1233zd(E) GWP of 1, a Dutch shipping containers (aka reefers) market leader has decided to use it exclusively for all its new purchased units.

According to the reefers manufacturer, the foam insulation is significantly better than with other blowing agents, and also presents an improved thermal conductivity, especially at lower temperatures (10°C), reducing energy consumption during operations.

Source : Product manufacturer

HFO-1233zd(E) CHOSEN FOR THE RENOVATION OF THE CHANNEL TUNNEL REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

HFO-1233zd(E) has been chosen for the replacement of the outdated Eurotunnel HCFC-22 refrigeration system.

Following the EU ODS Regulation, since 1 January 2015 HCFC-22 refilling was not allowed and maintenance was practically impossible.

Eventually, Eurotunnel decided to change the machines and to use HFO-1233zd(E), which has no ODP and a GWP of 1.

In order to maintain the Tunnel temperature below 30, refrigeration is needed, since, although at 50 meters below the sea level, its temperature would reach 50 C because of the heat generated by the circulation of the trains.

Eight months of the year, huge fans circulating air cooled in cooling towers are sufficient to regulate the temperature in the tunnel, but in the summer additional refrigeration is needed.

Four HFO-1233zd(E) chillers are to be installed, two at Sangatte (France), one at Shakespeare Cliff (UK), and a fourth in the near future, delivering cold water in pipes along the 50 km railway tunnels in order to keep temperatures below 30°C and to cool the returning hot water.

The new chillers should deliver 26 MW refrigeration each; they weigh more than 60 tons, and are the largest of their type, up to several times the size of standard chillers, customizable to fit unique installation specifications, and achieving a 10% higher energy efficiency.

Source (in French) :  Nord Litoral

HFO-1233ZDE BLOWING AGENT FOR POLYURETHANE FOAMS WINNER OF THE PU INNOVATION AWARD

Having already been successfully introduced as blowing agent in different insulating polyurethane foam applications, for instance in Cold Storage Rooms or in Spray foams, HFO-1233zdE was named the winner of the 2015 Polyurethane Innovation Award by the American CPI (Center for the Polyurethanes Industry).

The award recognized the introduction of a very low GWP (GWP = 1) blowing agent, providing excellent insulation properties, enabling the attainment of high energy standards in insulation applications, such as domestic appliances, buildings spray foam, trucks, containers and ships.

Furthermore, the US EPA recently decided a “Change of Listing Status for Certain Substitutes under the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program”, banning HFC blowing agents for most foam applications.

Source: American Chemistry Council

HFO-1233ZDE CHILLER WINS A JAPANESE GOVERNMENT AWARD

A chiller using HFO-1233zdE as a high efficiency alternative to HCFC-123 has won a Japanese METI environmental award.

Originally developed as a Polyurethane foam blowing agent, R-1233zdE ensures the revival of earlier Low Pressure Centrifugal Technology Range, extended to a capacity of up to 14MW, for applications like comfort cooling of large commercial buildings including district cooling.

It is also claimed to be up to 13.5% more energy efficient than other chillers available in this tonnage range.

Source: Cooling Post and producer information

HFO-1234ZE BLOWING AGENT FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE XPS (EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE) AND PUR (POLYURETHANE) INSULATING FOAMS

HFO-1234zeE as blowing agent has been shown to bring an excellent thermal conductivity to XPS (extruded polystyrene) insulating panels, 20-25 % lower compared to CO2 blown foam. It can also be used for the production of sandwich panels incorporating pressurized PUR (polyurethane) foam.

Source : Producer Information

HFO-1234ZE CHILLER SELECTED FOR A BRITISH SUSTAINABLE BUILDING

An HFO-1233ze based reciprocating chiller has been chosen for the HFO’s very low GWP of 1 [against 6 in the source, which is an outdated value], to cool the new Centre for Sustainable Chemistry at the University of Nottingham, which is designed to be carbon neutral.

The 60 kW chiller is also equipped with refrigerant leak detection and an automatic pump-down system to isolate the plant from the building in the event of a leak.

Source: MBS Modern Building Service

HFO-1234ZE HEAT PUMPS RECOVER DATA CENTER WASTE HEAT TO SUPPLY A LARGE FINNISH DISTRICT HEATING NETWORK

Two HFO-1234ze innovative and energy efficient heat pumps have been installed in Kikkonummi, Finland, to recover waste heat from a Ericsson’s data center to supply one of the largest Finnish district heating networks.

The data center generates between 10,000 to 15,000 MWh waste heat annually, and heat pumps with a capacity of up to 26,500 kW will cover around 20 % of the district heating demand.

The heat pumps compressors have friction-free magnetic bearings, requiring no lubrication or maintenance, and, optimized for HFO-1234ze are 3 % more efficient than with the previously used HFC-134a

Source : Cooling Post

HFO-1234ZE REFRIGERATION UNITS FOR A FRENCH COLD ROOM STORAGE

Two HFO-1234ze units have been installed at a French fruit producers to replace HCFC-22 for the cooling of 1,400 m3 cold rooms, each storing around 300 tonnes of apples at +1°C.

HFO1234ze has been selected for its GWP of 1 and its energy efficiency compared to other refrigerants.

In particular, CO2 was not suitable for fruit storage since the most intense operating period would be during the summer and autumn, when the CO2 performance would be at its lowest.

The company produces 3,500 tonnes of apples per year; the apples are stored for between four and 12 months in cold rooms in a controlled atmosphere.

The storage facility has more than 12 cold rooms, most of which are still cooled by units operating on R-404A refrigerant. Measurements have shown that the HFO-1234ze units are much more energy efficient.

Source : Producer information

HFO-1234ZE SELECTED FOR INTEGRAL SKIN POLYURETHANE FOAMS

HFO-1234ze has found another use as an innovative blowing agent for integral skin polyurethane foams, providing excellent foam performances and minimizing the environmental impact.

Different from insulating foams, polyurethane integral skin foam products are composed of a two-part polyurethane system: a flexible, lightweight foam core encased in a thick outer “skin” providing a soft touch feeling, that is created in a single molding process. Integral Skin Foams has a wide use, e.g. car steering wheels, or office furniture armrests.

HFO-1234ze has a very low GWP of 1, is non flammable and is not classified as a volatile organic compound (atmospheric ozone precursor) by the US EPA.

Source : Manufacturers information

HFO-1234ZE(E) SELECTED FOR HIGHLY EFFICIENT CHILLERS AND HEAT PUMPS, ABLE TO PRODUCE HIGHER TEMPERATURE WARM WATER

A large HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) manufacturer has selected HFO-1234ze(E) to replace HFC-134a in a new range of chilled water production and heat pumps using screw compressors.

The new systems are 5 % more efficient than the previous ones, and reach a ESEER (European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) of 7.7 (for water/water units) and 5 (for air/water units).

Thanks to its thermodynamic properties, HFO-1234ze(E) heat pumps can deliver warm water at 85 C (HFC-134a heat pumps can only reach 65 C), allowing them to recover heat from waste heat to provide sanitary warm water or to feed in district heating.

Recognizing that HFO-1234ze(E) is classified as A2L (mildly flammable), although not flammable at ambient temperature, the manufacturer has taken appropriate safety measures and revised accordingly operating instructions (see also News below).

The next proposed development is the use of HFO-1233zd larger capacities chillers using centrifugal compressors.

Source: Le Moniteur.fr

HFO-1234ZE(E)/CO2 CASCADE SELECTED FOR THE RETROFIT OF A CZECH HYPERMARKET

HFO-1234ze(E) and CO2 in a cascade configuration have been selected for the retrofit of a R-404A based system in a major Czech hypermarket.

The customer requirements were a low GWP refrigerant, mildly a flammable (Class A2L) refrigerant for indirect cooling, and a high energy efficiency.

These requirements were met by the use of indirect cooling with HFO-1234ze(E) (GWP =1) for air conditioning (440 kW) and for the medium temperature level (533 kW), and by CO2 direct expansion at the low temperature level (135 kW).
Combined with the choice of efficient refrigerants, the integration of air-conditioning, cooling and heat recovery in one system has delivered a reduction in energy consumption by around 20-30 %.

Source : Product Manufacturer

HFO-1336MZZ TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HEAT PUMPS

Soon after having been proposed as a potential working fluid for high temperature heat pumps, HFO-1336mzz based heat pumps are presented by a Norwegian company, able to upgrade low temperature waste heat to more than 150 C with a COP in the range of 4 to 4.5.

For this application, no other small-to medium-sized heat pump can reach such high temperatures resulting from HFO-1336mzz thermodynamic properties, which might allow HFO-1336mzz based heat pumps to potentially displace fossil fuels or electric heaters or boilers in the future.

Demand for heat at temperatures above 100°C is very high, and huge amounts of waste heat are available. High temperature heat pumps can therefore be very attractive to a whole range of industries with high-temperature processes and operations.

Source : Manufacturer information

EFCTC NOTE: Other refrigerant fluids are being used to achieve high temperatures from waste heat including in some applications HFC-245fa and CO2.

HFO-1336MZZ(Z) FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HEAT PUMPS

Heat Pumps are favored for their ability to deliver heat from low temperature sources at more useful temperature levels, with the advantage of contributing significantly to reduce primary energy and CO2 emissions.

The higher the temperature the greater the number of applications where the upgraded heat can be used. However, until recently there was no suitable working fluid that had a high enough critical temperature to be used in such applications.

A new HFO, HFO-1336mzzZ has been developed, which might be the solution, because of its boiling point of 33.4 °C and its relatively high critical temperature of 171.3 °C (101.1 °C for HFC-134a, or 154 °C for HFC-245fa). The product has a GWP of 2, is non-flammable and non-toxic, and is very stable at high temperatures.

Its high critical temperature can help to expand the range of heat pump use, delivering condensing temperatures up to 160 °C with attractive energy efficiency.

Source: KTH Department of Energy Technology

HFO/HFC BLEND SAVING ENERGY WHEN REPLACING R-404A IN A BRITISH SUPERMARKET REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

A British supermarket chain has retrofitted one of its supermarket refrigeration system with R-449A (GWP = 1 397), a blend containing R-32/R-125 /R-134a/R-1234yf / (24.3/24.7/25.7/25.3 weight %) as a replacement for R-404A (GWP =3 922). The system comprises two high temperature packs and one low temperature pack.

Analysis of energy consumption showed a reduction of 8.7 % for the high temperature systems and of 3.0 % for the low temperature system.

Adding to the 64 % reduction in GWP, the supermarket carbon footprint could be significantly reduced.

Source : ACR Journal

HFOS AS HCFCS SUBSTITUTES DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS RECEIVE GREEN LIGHT FROM THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL MULTILATERAL FUND

At its 74th session, the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund Executive Committee agreed to fund several demonstration projects in developing countries (Art. 5 of the Montreal Protocol). These demonstration projects will test the use of HFOs and HFO blends as substitutes for HCFCs in PU insulating foam blowing agents and as air conditioning working fluids.

UNIDO introduced two Saudi Arabia preparation projects :

– the first, based on HFOs such as HFO-1233zd(E), for the phase-out of HCFCs as insulating foam blowing agent in applications under high ambient temperatures for refrigerating appliances. Besides a very low GWP of 1, HFOs provide a higher insulation performance of 6-8% and a higher yield (lower raw material costs).

– the second one for promoting HFO-based low-GWP refrigerants for the air-conditioning sector in high ambient temperatures. HFO blends will be tested such as R-444B or R447A.

UNDP introduced an India project for the development and evaluation of spray foam polyols systems under high ambient temperatures for buildings using HFO-1233zd(E) as blowing agent.

A World Bank presented Columbia project for the use of HFOs for discontinuous panels and spray foam was deferred to the next MLF ExCom meeting.

Source : Multilateral Fund.  Details here and here.

HFOs EVALUATED AS BLOWING AGENTS FOR EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE (XPS) INSULATING FOAMS

Various HFOs have been evaluated as replacement for HFC-134a as blowing agents for XPS (extruded polystyrene) insulating foams.

From the five different HFOs tested, HFO-1234zeE, the only one to be produced at an industrial scale, gave excellent results, when mixed with co-blowing agents in order to keep a good foam structure.

Non commercial HFO-1261zf (CH2=CH-CH2F), and HFO-1243zf (CH2=CH-CF3), in combination with co-blowing agents, gave also good results.

Source : Sage Journals – Journal of Cellular Plastics

HFOS PROPOSED FOR REPLACING HFC-245FA IN LOW TEMPERATURE ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLES

A study compares HFC-245fa to two HFOs, HCFO-1233zd-E and HFO-1336mzz-Z, as a working fluid for ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycle).

HCFO-1233zd-E could reach up to 10.6% higher net cycle efficiencies, and HFO-1336mzz-Z up to 17 % than HFC-245fa over the range of cycle conditions examined.

Larger turbine sizes would however be required : about 7.5%–10.2% with HCFO-1233zd-E and about 30.9%–41.5% with HFO-1336mzz-Z.

The net cycle efficiency increases and the required turbine size decreases relative to HFC-245fa for HCFO-1233zd-E and for HFO-1336mzz-Z at higher evaporating and condensing temperatures.

Source: Science Direct

HISTORIC UK BUILDING REFURBISHED WITH HFC UNDER FLOOR AIR CONDITIONING

An early 20th century historic building in London Soho has been refurbished with Under Floor Air Conditioning working with HFCs.

The refurbishment was intended to convert a traditional old building into fully air conditioned commercial office space, whilst retaining its aesthetic value.

Under Floor Air Conditioning was especially suitable in order to cope with height restrictions, needed to keep a minimum ceiling height in the offices.

The project has achieved a “Very Good” BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method) rating.

HYBRID VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW AIR CONDITIONERS REDUCE THE QUANTITY OF REQUIRED R-410A

Hybrid Variable Refrigerant Flow (HVRF) air conditioners are a recent new development in the field of building air conditioning, reducing by 40 % the quantity of R-410A in the system and delivering a COP (Coefficient of Performance) over 6.

The new system works without using refrigerant in occupied spaces and reducing the refrigerant quantity is meeting the purpose of the F-Gas Regulation HFC phase down.

At the heart of the HVRF is a controller box combining two separate heat exchangers which are each connected to an inverter driven water pump and a set of control valves. The 2 exchangers provide hot water in heating mode, cold water in cooling mode or, in mixed mode, send simultaneously to their respective circuits hot or cold water. Hot water is available at around 45 C and chilled water at 10 C.

The controller sends to each user the required volume of hot or cold water corresponding to the temperature he selected. In this way, an office can be heated and at the same time the neighbouring meeting room cooled.

Other than the testing required by the F-gas Regulation, no additional leak detection equipment as should be requested by Standard CEN – EN378 is required in the building, since there is no refrigerant in occupied spaces.

Source (in French) : La RPF.fr

HYDROCARBON GAS CONTENT RECOGNIZED RESPONSIBLE FOR A FATAL EXPLOSION IN AUSTRALIA

Investigation of a fatal explosion that took place in 2014 in an Australian hotel and caused the death of two maintenance workers concluded that the hydrocarbon content of a refrigeration unit had been the cause of the explosion.

The workers were removing a refrigeration unit in the hotel cellar but the refrigerant had not be removed, which was inappropriate, and a spark or a lighter in the confined space of the cellar could have triggered the explosion.

Although strict standards and procedures exist in Australia regarding the use of flammable refrigerants, no licence is required for workers handling these, contrary to handling fluorocarbon where a licence is required.

Source : Cooling Post

IIR INFORMATION NOTE ON CONTAINMENT OF REFRIGERANTS

IIR’s Informatory Note on Containment of Refrigerants within Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems focuses on the environmental impact of refrigerant leakage and also on the impact on system reliability, efficiency and economics of operation.

Refrigerant leakage reduces the system efficiency, its capacity, its reliability and its cost, due to refrigerant refilling, additional servicing and repairs.

Leakage reduction must be achieved throughout the entire life cycle of the refrigerants, and at all stages in the life cycle of equipment (design; manufacture; operation; service and repair; decommissioning).

Emission levels vary according to the type of system and thus require containment policies that are appropriate to the system type and application, differentiating for example :

  • Factory-sealed equipment (small commercial and household appliances),
  • Chillers, located in machine rooms,
  • Commercial and Industrial refrigeration with long refrigerant circuits,
  • Car air-conditioning with flexible elastomer hoses and open-type directly driven compressors.

IIR recommends to bear in mind the major impact of indirect emissions from energy conversion on global warming, and therefore to use an LCCP cycle approach in the design, selection installation and operation of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning systems.

IMPACT OF THE F-GAS 2014 REGULATION ON FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

Besides the reduction of available material due to the progressive HFC phase-down (although there is a significant bank of recycled material which can be used for new systems and for recharges), the new F-Gas Regulation 517/2014 will have some specific impacts on the Fire Protection Industry.

While the 2006 regulation had a lower limit of 3 kg on the size of system that was covered by the leak checking requirements, this lower limit becomes 5 tonnes CO2-eq. The new requirements will be applicable from January 2017.

HFCs used in Fire Protection have high GWP : 3,220 for HFC-227ea (FE-200) and 9,810 for HFC-236fa (FE-36). The consequence will be that a great number of Fire extinguishers, which contain typically 1-2 kg HFC, and were previously outside the leak checking requirements, will be covered : for FE-36 even a 1 kg system is now covered by the requirements and for FM-200 a 2kg system.

Member states will have to make sure that system owners and service providers are informed of the new regime, and make sure there are enough qualified personnel and registered companies to meet the challenge of more systems coming under the requirements.

Source: FIA – Fire Industry Association and IS 10   Fire Protection Systems

IMPORTANCE OF THE COLD CHAIN FOR THE PHARMA SECTOR

The 2014 Fourth Conference on the Cold Chain for Health Products (Lyon, France) addressed the importance of refrigeration and the cold chain for pharma products.

For the ten best-selling drugs worldwide, five have to be stored at temperatures from +2 to 8°C , four at a different temperature range, and only one has no storage temperature requirement.

Participants were reminded that the “last kilometer”, is a sensitive point in every cold chain, as this last link is also the weakest.

Local and international transport have to be looked at, as many drugs are not manufactured in the patient’s country.

Source : http://www.bulletins-electroniques.com/actualites/76949.htm

IMPROVEMENT OF COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY THROUGH ADVANCED CONTROL OF AIR CONDITIONING

American researchers, having conducted a year-long trial of the controls at malls, grocery stores and other buildings, have demonstrated that commercial buildings could substantially cut their heating and cooling electricity use by an average of 57 percent.

The team looked at packaged factory-built rooftop units, as most buildings don’t use sophisticated controls and these are among the biggest energy consumers in buildings.

The idea was to automatically adjust HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) operations based on conditions inside and outside of the building, and, using sensors and variable-speed motors, adjust ventilation fans, and use outside cold air instead of mechanically cooled air.

Starting in 2012, they installed a commercially available control kit on 66 rooftop HVAC units at eight volunteer commercial buildings in different regions, including shopping malls, grocery stores, big-box stores and a medical clinic.

The results of these trials have shown that it is possible to cut the energy use of commercial buildings by 20 to 90 percent, with an average of 57 percent, using advanced energy-efficiency controls of packaged rooftop heating, ventilation and air-conditioning units.

Source: Pacific Northwest – US Department of Energy

INNOVATIVE HFC-134A/CO2 CASCADE FOR A FRENCH COLD STORE

A French cold store has invested in an innovative HFC-134a/CO2 cascade refrigeration unit with a flooded evaporator/condenser.

Having to replace its HCFC-22 units, the HFC-134a/CO2 solution with hot gas defrost was selected as the best cost/efficiency compromise among a range of possible alternative solution, including a drop in solution R-422D, a cascade NH3/CO2 and a R-507 retrofit.

Thanks to energy performance optimization and to the new design, the cold store energy consumption has been reduced by around 25 % compared to the previous HCFC-22 unit.

The cold store has 36,000 m3 of storage capacity at -21°C, 4,000m3 of dry storage, and 1000 m2 of dock space at controlled temperature (+2°C/+6°C).

Source (in French): RPF.fr

JAPAN PLACES HFOs OUTSIDE THE FLUOCARBONS EMISSIONS CONTROL LEGISLATION

Japanese authorities have decided that HFOs 1234yf, 1234zeE and 1233zdE should not be subject to the fluorocarbons emissions control legislation, which strictly regulates their use, recovery and destruction.

Since their GWP is practically nil, authorities do not need to regulate HFOs, and agree that they are to be treated similarly to non fluorinated alternative refrigerants, blowing agents, solvents etc.

Source: Cooling Post

LARGE BRITISH SUPERMARKET CHAIN CONVERTING 1200 STORES REFRIGERATION TO LOWER GWP R-448A

A large British supermarket chain has selected R-448A for the conversion of the presently used R-404A commercial refrigeration systems of more than 1,200 of its stores across the UK.

R-448A (blend of HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-134a/HFO-1234yf/HFO-1234zeE, 26/26 /21/20/7 % weight) has a GWP of 1,386, instead of 3,922 for R-404A.

It is nonflammable and was meeting customers’ key criteria including energy efficiency, system performance and maintenance.

Source: Cooling Post

LOW GWP HFOs AND HFCs REFRIGERANT BLENDS SUBSTITUTES TO HIGH GWP HFCs

As a consequence of the F-Gas Regulation provisions regarding the HFC phase-down and the equipment use restrictions, producers and equipment manufacturers have worked to introduce a number of lower GWP alternatives, by blending HFCs with HFO-1234yf or HFO-1234ze. Blends compositions have to be fine tuned in order to meet technical and energy efficiency performances expected for each kind of application.

The following alternatives have recently received technical interest.

R-404A (GWP 3,922) alternatives: R-452A (GWP 2,140) has been adopted for transport refrigeration, and R-448A or R-449A (GWP 1,386 or 1,397) have been approved for commercial refrigeration use. These blends have significantly lower GWPs than R-404A, with their compositions and GWPs being influenced by the technical requirements.

R-410A (GWP 2,088) alternative: R-452B (GWP 698) for use in chillers. HFC-134a (GWP 1.430) alternatives: R-513 (GWP 631) is proposed for use in chillers, and R-450A (GWP 600) for use in chillers and commercial refrigeration applications.

Composition for the different blends can be found here.

Note : GWP values are from the F-Gas Regulation 517 (2014), based on IPCC AR4.

See also the Factsheet “’Selecting and Using GWP values for Refrigerants”’

MEGA RUSSIAN DATA CENTER HFC COOLING GETS INNOVATION AWARD

A Russian mega data center has won an “Innovation in the Mega Data Center” award for the energy efficiency of its HFC  cooling project.

To supply the 25 MW of cooling in a difficult climate, with annual temperature range from minus 35 to plus 40 °C, fifty-eight split chillers were installed, with oil free HFC compressors and remote evaporators, some 120 m far.

The data center, from a very large Russian bank, replaced 36 existing regional data centers by a new centralized center, claimed to be the largest in Europe, covering 5,000 m2 with a cooling power need of 25 MW.

Despite the challenging conditions, the facility has a low Power usage effectiveness (PUE) of 1.3, while the average is 2.5 and the most efficient 1.6.

The oil free chiller compressors can run with HFC-134a or HFO-1234ze as refrigerants.

Sources : GeoclimaDatacenter Dynamics

MOST USED HFOS HAVE A GWP BELOW OR EQUAL TO CO2, ACCORDING TO IPCC NEW REPORT

Having reviewed the published scientific information, in particular the recent publication by Hodnebrog and al, IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Working Group I – The Physical Science Basis has revised the GWP (Global Warming Potential) of Fluorocarbons.

According to the WG I Final Report, the GWP for HFO-1234yf is 0 (zero, instead of 4 previously), and for HFO-1234zeE it is 1 (instead of 6 previously).

MYSTERY OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE LARGELY SOLVED

Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) is an Ozone Depleting Substance with a relatively high ODP value of 1.1 (Montreal Protocol value). In response to continued questions about the discrepancy between CCl4 atmospheric observations and reported production and consumption, a workshop on “The Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride” was organized in October 2015 by the SPARC (Stratosphere-Troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) activity on CCl4. The workshop findings have been recently published in the  SPARC Report on Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions.

Up to now a large discrepancy was noted between emissions of carbon tetrachloride calculated from atmospheric measurements and those based on reported emissions inventories.

New scientific work discussed during the workshop has effectively narrowed the gap between these estimates and largely solved the “mystery” (which might have been the result of unknown sources of emissions).

The scientific work indicates that the atmospheric lifetime of carbon tetrachloride is significantly longer than previously estimated (hence lower emissions are needed to sustain the measured atmospheric concentrations).

The emissions appear to arise mainly from material produced and used in South East Asia, although there are small continuing emissions from North America and Europe. So-called “fugitive” emissions from use of carbon tetrachloride as a chemical feedstock are small (at less than 1% of global production).

Natural refirgerants? EFCTC New fact sheet

‘Natural’ refrigerants ? There is no real distinction between the processing required for any refrigerant, whether it occurs naturally in any useable form or is produced by chemical synthesis. They all require an industrial scale manufacturing process to meet quality specifications for refrigeration fluids.

The vapour compression cycle accounts for well over 90% of all refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump systems. It relies on successively compressing a fluid to a pressure where it can be condensed, with the subsequent evaporation to provide the cooling, and finally recirculating it to the first step. To achieve best efficiency, not only should the physical properties of the fluid match the particular requirements of the system but the fluid must meet rigorous standards of purity.

These requirements for quality assurance and reliability, coupled with the quantities involved (many hundreds of thousands of tonnes per year) mean that all refrigerant fluids are the result of industrial scale manufacturing processes, and have to pass through separation and purification processes. Typically:

  • Carbon dioxide is a by-product of Ammonia production and is also recovered and isolated during air separation. In both cases its quality must be brought to refrigerant specifications by further industrial processing;
  • Ammonia is synthesised by catalytic methane reforming at high temperature and pressure. It is used predominantly as an intermediate to produce chemical fertilisers and must be treated to obtain refrigerant purity;
  • Propane, Butane and Pentane (including their isomers) are separated from fossil fuels in an oil refinery (distillation) and purified on-site;
  • Fluorocarbons basic building blocks are fluorspar rock, sulphuric acid, salt and hydrocarbons, which are chemically processed to obtain the desired refrigerant. The final production steps are separation and purification.

Conclusion:    No commonly used refrigerant (except water or air) can be obtained without being subjected to industrial processing.

 

NEW : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

–    the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

–    data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

–    a GWP calculator for new blends.

*   The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?

BONew

Watch the video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EmIhT28fWeI  

More videos on:  https://www.fluorocarbons.org/brock-ollie/

NEW EUROPEAN “REAL ALTERNATIVES” PROGRAMME ADDRESSES SKILLS SHORTAGES OVER LOW GWP REFRIGERANTS

REAL Alternatives is a new initiative to address skills shortages regarding low-GWP refrigerants (CO2, ammonia, hydrocarbon and HFO refrigerants), focusing on improving knowledge in the service and maintenance of these refrigerants in new systems from the point of view of safety, efficiency, reliability and containment.

REAL Alternatives will also build on the established RealZero and Real Skills Europe containment approaches.

The programme involving, among others the British IoR (Institute of Refrigeration), the Italian ATF (Associazione dei Tecnici del freddo italiani e dei Frigoristi del condizionamento e della refrigerazione) and AREA (European organisation for refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump contractors), will bring together industry knowledge and expertise from across Europe.

Stakeholders drawn from employers, manufacturers, trade associations and professional institutes will also have an essential role in contributing learning material, advising on content, helping to pilot and promote the programme as it is developed.

NEW HCFO WITH A HIGHER BOILING POINT PROPOSED AS POLYURETHANE BLOWING AGENT AND SOLVENT

HCFO-1233zdE, a chloro-fluorinated molecule (CHCl=CH-CF3 or trifluorochloropropene) has a boiling point of 18.6C, and has been developed to cover applications for which the boiling point of other HFOs is too low.

Its GWP is 1, and, despite the presence of chlorine has a zero ODP, because of its very short atmospheric lifetime.

It is proposed as blowing agent for high performance polyurethane insulating foams, and also as solvent.

HFO-1233zd(E) could also be used as a replacement for HCFC-123 in Chillers, or HFC-245fa in Organic Rankine Cycles.

Source : Producers Information

NEW HFC BASED CHILLER OFFERING HIGHEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY

A new inverter screw water-cooled chiller range has been put on the market, achieving a high energy efficiency, especially at part load, typically 97% of the operating time.

Anticipating future regulatory requirements, it has been designed for use with HFC-134a or the lower GWP drop-in R-513A (GWP 631).

The new chiller is up to 15% more efficiently than other existing systems, and can achieve an EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) of 5.7 at full load, with an ESEER (European seasonal energy efficiency ratio) of up to 8.3 at part load.

The chiller design incorporates inverter technology and a high efficiency flooded-type heat exchanger, and optimizes unit performances by adjusting the discharge pressure of the compressor to the condensing pressure.

Besides cooling, the chiller can also produce hot water up to 65ºC.

Source : Manufacturer information

NEW HFC ORC SYSTEM PROJECT TO PRODUCE ENERGY FROM MARINE ENGINES JACKET WATER

A HFC-245fa Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)  system has been developed to recover heat from marine engines jacket water to convert it to electricity for shipboard consumption.

The system can use heat from a source with temperatures as low as 80°C, unlike other heat recovery systems that require much higher temperatures, to produce up to 125 kW electricity per unit.

The high-speed turbine expander and high-efficiency permanent-magnet generator are contained in a single hermetically sealed housing, and equipped with friction-free magnetic bearings, requiring no lubrication or maintenance.

NEW HFC-BASED GROUND HEAT PUMP : LARGEST FOR THE BRITISH POULTRY SECTOR

A 1,300 kW HFC based Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) will provide heating and cooling for a British 50,000 birds poultry farm.

Representing the largest British GSHP in the sector, the farm will rely on five R417A GSHPs, designed specifically for this kind of use, using 10,000 vertical bore holes to provide controlled temperature loads at 33 °C, dropping to 20 °C across the farm.

Heat pumps offer the additional benefits of cooling and de-humidification during warmer weather, leading to increasing bird welfare, generating less CO2 and humidity.

R417A is a blend of HFC-134a/HFC-125/HC-600 (46,6/50,0/3,4 weight %) and is also used as a HCFC-22 substitute.

Source: Heat Pumps Today

NEW HFO-BLENDS AS LOWER GWP SUBSTITUTES FOR R-404A

Following advice to replace R-404A because of its high GWP of 3,922, newly developed non flammable HFO blends R-450A (HFC-134a / HFO-1234ze(E), 42/58 weight %, GWP around 600) and R-452A (HFC-32/HFC-125/HFO-123yf, 11/59/30 weight %, GWP 2,140) have been introduced and tested.

In the first case, a Spanish supermarket is testing R-450A as a drop-in substitute, expecting to bring additional energy saving through increased energy efficiency. The system is being monitored to obtain real and accurate values of the new consumption over time, taking into account the variation of temperatures throughout the warmer seasons.

In the second case, a major refrigerated transport company is offering R-452A in a new line of trailers and self-powered truck units and for retrofitting existing R-404A ones. Later on, vehicle powered truck products will be offered the same option.

Despite not being a low GWP gas, R-452A is considered particularly suitable for the demanding conditions of transport refrigeration, due to the wide range of ambient conditions. Transport refrigeration requires indeed the safest, most environmentally responsible, and technically and commercially viable solution.

Sources : Cooling postCooling Post

NEW HFOs PROPOSED TO COVER HCFC AND HFC ALTERNATE SOLUTIONS

Complementing established HFOs, new HFO molecules and blends have been developed for specific applications.

A blend containing mainly HFO-1123 (1,1,2 – Trifluoroethene, CHF=CF2) is proposed to replace R-410A in stationary air conditioning. The blend has an GWP of 350, one sixth of R-410A.

HFO-1336mz-Z ((Z)-1,1,1,4,4,4-Hexafluoro-2-Butene, CF3-CH=CH-CF3) is a non –flammable liquid (BP 33 C), with a GWP of 9.4, and has been proposed

– as polyurethane foam blowing agent for high performance foam

– as working fluid for high temperature heat pumps

– and as a replacement for HCFC-123.

Sources : Producers information

NEW HIGH PERFORMANCE HFC AIR CONDITIONING TO PRESERVE MICHELANGELO’S FRESCOES IN THE SISTINE CHAPEL

As part of an effort to preserve Michelangelo’s frescoes in the Vatican Sistine Chapel, decorating the vaulted ceiling rising to 20.7m, a new HFC Air Conditioning system is being installed, replacing an early 1990 outdated system, which was designed to handle far fewer visitors.

July_Picture_1_Vatican_Sistine_Chapel

The primary cooling source is a water-cooled water chiller unit, with a nominal output capacity of 210 kW. It will be twice as efficient as the existing one, and have three times its capacity, in order to cope with the huge increase of visitors to the chapel, reaching more than 6 million a year, bringing humidity, dust and dirt from the outside.

The system will use energy-saving technologies, ensuring close control of temperature and humidity levels. It is designed to minimize noise, being virtually unnoticeable to visitors, and to limit air motion around the paintings.

Suggested reading : An in-depth paper on the Sistine Chapel special requirements.

Source: WNPR News

NEW HIGHLY EFFICIENT HFC BASED GEOTHERMAL PROCESS FOR A FRENCH WINERY

An innovative geothermal R-410A heat pump system has been installed by an Alsace winery in its winemaking plant.

Two R-410A geothermal heat pumps, controlled by an innovative energy efficient process with a COP of 7 to 10 – nearly twice the performance of similar heat pumps – are connected to 23 vertical 100 m long earth tubes. They deliver 110 kW heat or 90 kW cooling to the winery’s stainless steel fermentation tanks. The 23 earth tubes represent a ground heat reservoir of around 170,000 m3.

The process allows control of the fermentation process, cooling or heating the tanks when appropriate, storing excess heat in the ground or heating the buildings and distributing hot water in the offices.

The project received the Geothermal award trophy for 2014.

Source: Repowermap

NEW IN OUR LIBRARY DECEMBER 2014 – JANUARY 2015

EPEE publishes FAQ and Factsheet on F-Gas Regulation

“Both documents are designed to help our industry partners and stakeholders understand their obligations under the new EU rules, as well as act as general reference points for anyone interested in the finer details of the key piece of legislation. Both documents can be found in our press room and in the refrigerants section of our website. French, German, Italian, and Spanish versions are also available.

 

NEW LINE OF HFC BASED HEAT PUMPS BRINGS SIGNIFICANT ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS

A new line of HFC based air-water heat pumps has been introduced, providing high level performance ratings, a SCOP (Seasonal Coefficient Of Performance – see note) value of up to 3.38 and a ESEER (European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) in cooling up to 4.28. These values comply with the future EU Ecodesign regulation for heating products.

Variable speed compressors, pumps and fans, optimized heat exchangers, and advanced control algorithm all contribute to reducing energy consumption.

In addition, an innovative defrosting algorithm, replacing conventional method by outside air during positive temperature situations, can improve the SCOP by up to 12 %.

In total, the new line incorporating all possible improvements, can provide 22 % energy savings compared with the previous models.

Source: Fridge Hub

Note : The SCOP is a new EU Ecodesign parameter to evaluate the energy efficiency of heat pumps. It replaces the COP rating (Coefficient of Performance) by addressing seasonal variations in the rating. More details are in Annex I of the Air Conditioners Ecodesign Directive.

NEW LINK ADDED – July 2014

Applications of Fluorocarbons – Refrigeration

– Composition of Refrigerant Blends (US EPA accepted) http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/refrigerants/refblend.html

NEW LINK ADDED – NOVEMBER 2014

ASHRAE List of blends (400 and 500 series)

https://www.ashrae.org/standards-research–technology/standards–guidelines/standards-activities/ashrae-refrigerant-designations#z

NEW LOW GWP HFOs AND HFCs REFRIGERANT BLENDS DEVELOPED AS SUBSTITUTES TO HIGH GWP HFCs

Research continues to develop solutions to replace high GWP HFC refrigerants, mainly R-404A (GWP 3,922 – Note 1), R-410A (GWP 2,088) and HFC-134a (GWP 1,430), under the F-Gas Regulation provisions regarding HFC phase-down and equipment use restrictions, and recently under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

R-404A and R-410A are essentially targeted because of their GWP, specifically by the GWP > 2.500 use ban (affecting R-404A) from January 2020 for commercial applications and by the GWP > 750 single split air conditioner use ban from 2025.

HFC-134a has a predominant share of the CO2-equivalent available quota for HFCs. The quantities of HFCs as CO2-equivalent placed on the market will have to be reduced, in order to comply with the F-Gas Regulation mandated phase-down schedule (minus 37 % in 2018 and minus 55 % in 2021), ) and options to replace HFC-134a with lower GWP alternatives would be helpful in meeting the cap.

The main issues to be met in the search of alternative solutions are : suitable thermodynamic properties, capacity to meet systems requirements, energy efficiency, and flammability – however mild – of some products or blends.

Substitutes should preferably be non flammable, but this requirement leads to blends having a GWP in a range of 300 to 1,300 or even more.

Mildly flammable (ASHRAE A2L safety group) substitutes have generally GWPs lower than 300 but their final acceptance will depend on safety standards updates which are expected following the results of the ongoing research on Flammable refrigerants.

A previous News had listed a few following alternatives :

For R-404a (GWP 3,922)- they are all ASHRAE A1 safety group (non flammable, non toxic) :
– R-448A (GWP 1,386)
– R-449A (GWP 1,397)
– R-452A (GWP 2,140) (Note 2)
For R-410a (A1 – GWP 2,088) : R-452B (A2L – GWP=698)
For HFC-134a (GWP 1,430) : R-513A (A1 – GWP=631).

More recently more blends showing promising results have been proposed, such as (the list is not supposed to be comprehensive, as research is still going on) :

For R-404A :
– R-407H (A1 – GWP 1,495)
– R-449A (A1 – GWP 1,397)
– R-449B (A1- GWP 1,412)
– R-454A (A2L – GWP 239)
– R-455A (A2L – GWP 148)
– R-454C (A2L – GWP 148)
– R-457A (A2L – GWP 139)

For R-410A :
– R-447B (A2L – GWP 740)
– R-454B (A2L – GWP 466)
– R-459A (A2L – GWP 460).

For HFC-134a : (A2L blends have not been included)
– R-450A (A1 – GWP 604)
– R-513B (A1 – GWP 596)

The composition of all ASHRAE presently listed blends is given in a recently released factsheet.

Note 1 : GWP values are from the F-Gas Regulation 517 (2014), based on IPCC AR4.
Note 2 : Despite its high GWP of 2,140, R-452A has be retained for transport refrigeration, where the system requirements are particularly hard to meet, and since it represents a perfect drop in to replace R-404 in a large fleet of trucks, trailers, and marine containers.

Source : BITZER – Refrigerant report 19

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG – APRIL 2014

Update of the page Review of the Regulation Update of the page Coming events

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG – FEBRUARY 2014

  • Update of the Page Review of the Regulation after the EU Parliament/Council Agreement on the Revision
  • Factsheets on published refrigerant-related accidents :
    • Safety first when choosing a refrigerant!
    • Database on published refrigerant-related accidents
  • New link added: IIR Working Party on LCCP Evaluation
    http://www.iifiir.org/medias/medias.aspx?INSTANCE=EXPLOITATION&PORTAL_ID=portal_model_instance__WP_LCCP_Evaluation.xml

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG – JUNE 2014

Update of the Page Review of the Regulation Factsheet “Massive growth in HFCs is not considered likely in the IPCC Scenarios” Factsheet “Global Temperature change Potential compared to Global Warming Potential”

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG – MARCH 2014

Update of the Page Major HFO molecules Update of the Page Events

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG – MAY 2014

Update of the Page Review of the Regulation Update of the Page Events

New on Fluorocarbons.org – May 2017

Welcome to www.fluorocarbons.org our new website, where you will find all relevant fluorocarbon information easily.  We offer a “Learn About” section which includes :

  • “Climate change, Global warming, & HFCs”
  • “Environment and Breakdown Products”
  • “The Ozone Layer and Ozone Depleting”
  • “Safety, Proper and Use of Fluorocarbons”.

The site also provides summary information as infographics, a revised Log-book to comply with the F-Gas Regulation 517/2014, a new Figaroo – F-Gas Regulation Observatory On-line section following the entry in this F-Gas Regulation, among others.

Visit the updated Events section.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “Brock and Ollie – Closing the gap
SEE ALL BROCK & OLLIE VIDEOS here.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE
EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping. The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:
– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),
– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,
– a GWP calculator for new blends.
* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.
Up to now it has been downloaded 696 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG – OCTOBER 2014

HFOs TABLE UPDATE

Added HFO-1336mzz to the Table of HFOs.

EPEE F-GAS PLEDGE TO BE CATALYST FOR GLOBAL ACTION

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITEEFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

–    The list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

–    data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

–    a GWP calculator for new blends.* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW LINKS ADDED

Ireland EPA

http://www.epa.ie/air/airenforcement/ozone/reviewofthef-gasregulation/#.U-DquG1dywU

Applications of Fluorocarbons – RefrigerationComposition of Refrigerant Blends (US EPA accepted)

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/refrigerants/refblend.html

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG – SEPTEMBER 2014

New Factsheet : ‘Natural’ refrigerants ?

The coming events page has been updated

New link added

Applications of Fluorocarbons – Refrigeration

Composition of Refrigerant Blends (US EPA accepted)

 

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG APRIL 2015

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO

The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

–    the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

–    data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,-    a GWP calculator for new blends.* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW LINKS ADDED

Refrigeration

SWEDISH KTH – LOW GWP REFRIGERANTS

https://www.kth.se/en/itm/inst/energiteknik/forskning/ett/projekt/koldmedier-med-lag-gwp/low-gwp-news

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG APRIL 2016

Updated Factsheet Nr 8 “Trifluoroacetic Acid and Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)”

or Hydrofluoro-olefines (HFOs)

A new format for a comprehensive Special Newsletter “Understanding TFA”

EPEE Video : The EU F-Gas Phasedown

To assist EU Member States and to better inform their members and third countries, EPEE has produced a video, which summarises the phasedown, a critical element of the EU-F-Gas regulation.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 632 times.

NEW IN OUR LIBRARY

Implementing Regulations to the F-Gas Regulation EC 517 (2014)  

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG DECEMBER 2014 – JANUARY 2015

GO TO THE NEW VIDEO

https://www.fluorocarbons.org/brock-ollie

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*)

which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas

Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

–      the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

–      data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

–      a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) b° 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG DECEMBER 2015

EFCTC Press release: EFCTC welcomes the agreement at the 27th Meeting of the Parties in Dubai to work towards an HFC amendment in 2016.

EPEE Video : The EU F-Gas Phasedown

To assist EU Member States and to better inform their members and third countries, EPEE has produced a video, which summarises the phasedown, a critical element of the EU-F-Gas regulation.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “’The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?’”

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 590 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG DECEMBER 2016

  • NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “Brock and Ollie – Closing the gap
    SEE ALL BROCK & OLLIE VIDEOS here.
  • COMING SOON :FIGAROO II – F-Gas Regulation Observatory On-lineHelpful information about the implementation of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014
  • LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE
    EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing
    F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.
    The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:
    – the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),
    – data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,
    – a GWP calculator for new blends.
    * The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 689 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG FEBRUARY 2015

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

  • the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),
  • data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,
  • a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW LINKS ADDED  

Applications of Fluorocarbons –  Refrigeration

Two Italian organizations Facebook pages:

Associazione dei Tecnici del Freddo ––  ATF

Associazione-dei-Tecnici-del-Freddo – ATF

 

 

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG FEBRUARY 2016

EFCTC Press Release: EFCTC Highlights Importance of Timely F-Gas Verification

Updated Factsheet Nr 8 “Trifluoroacetic Acid and Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) or Hydrofluoro-olefines (HFOs).

A new format for an Intermediate Newsletter “Understanding TFA”comprehensive Special Factsheet on TFA “

EPEE Video: The EU F-Gas Phasedown

To assist EU Member States and to bTtter inform their members and third countries, EPEE has produced a video, which summarises the phasedown, a critical element of the EU-F-Gas regulation.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO:

The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 562 times.

UPDATE OF THE F-GAS REGULATION PAGE.  European Commission: Implementing Regulations to the F-Gas Regulation EC 517 (2014).

European Commission: Implementing Regulations to the F-Gas Regulation EC 517 (2014).

 

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG JULY – AUGUST 2017

WELCOME TO www.fluorocarbons.org OUR NEW WEBSITE, where you will find all relevant fluorocarbon information easily


We offer a “Learn About” section which includes :
“Climate change, Global warming, & HFCs”
“Environment and Breakdown Products”
“The Ozone Layer and Ozone Depleting”
“Safety, Proper and Use of Fluorocarbons”.
The site also provides summary information as infographics, a revised Log-book to comply with the F-Gas Regulation 517/2014, a new Figaroo – F-Gas Regulation Observatory On-line section following the entry in this F-Gas Regulation, among others.

ANOTHER NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO

The F-Gas Regulation and the Kigali Amendment
This new Brock & Ollie video explains the Kigali Amendment and how it relates to the F-Gas Regulation : The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol requires countries to gradually reduce HFC use to reach a reduction of 80-85 per cent by the late 2040s. It is a good regulation that shows that industry is at the forefront of protecting the climate whilst providing important benefits to society like refrigeration, air-conditioning, foam and insulation.

SEE ALL BROCK & OLLIE VIDEOS here.

 

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:
– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),
– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,
– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.
Up to now it has been downloaded 699 times.

 

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG JULY AUGUST 2015

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

–    the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

–    data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

–    a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 464 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG JULY-AUGUST 2016

EPEE Video : The EU F-Gas Phasedown

To assist EU Member States and to better inform their members and third countries, EPEE has produced a video, which summarises the phasedown, a critical element of the EU-F-Gas regulation.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO Brock and Ollie – Closing the gap

SEE ALL BROCK & OLLIE VIDEOS here.

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 648 times.

 

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG JUNE 2015

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROOFollowing the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITEEFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

  • the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),
  • data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends.
  • a GWP calculator for new blends.* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW LINKS ADDED

_ https://www.fluorocarbons.org/useful-links/applications-of-fluorocarbons

AFCE website has been reshuffled and redesigned for mobile phones.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG JUNE 2016

Updated Factsheet Nr 8 “Trifluoroacetic Acid and Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)or Hydrofluoro-olefines (HFOs)

Special Review : ‘“Understanding TFA’”

To assist EU Member States and to better inform their members and third countries, EPEE has produced a video, which summarises the phasedown, a critical element of the EU-F-Gas regulation.

BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO ‘“The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”’

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon LOG-BOOK : UPDATED

LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITEEFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 634 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG JUNE 2017

Welcome to www.fluorocarbons.org our new website, where you will find all relevant fluorocarbon information easily.

We offer a “Learn About” section which includes :
“Climate change, Global warming, & HFCs”
“Environment and Breakdown Products”
“The Ozone Layer and Ozone Depleting”
“Safety, Proper and Use of Fluorocarbons”.
The site also provides summary information as infographics, a revised Log-book to comply with the F-Gas Regulation 517/2014, a new
Figaroo – F-Gas Regulation Observatory On-line section following the entry in this F-Gas Regulation, among others.

 

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “Brock and Ollie – Closing the gap

SEE ALL BROCK & OLLIE VIDEOS here.

 

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to
comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.
The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:
– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),
– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,
– a GWP calculator for new blends.
* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.
Up to now it has been downloaded 701  times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG MARCH 2015

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:  the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2), data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends, a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW LINKS ADDED

Refrigeration

SWEDISH KTH – LOW GWP REFRIGERANTS

https://www.kth.se/en/itm/inst/energiteknik/forskning/ett/projekt/koldmedier-med-lag-gwp/low-gwp-news  

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG MARCH 2016

Updated Factsheet Nr 8 “Trifluoroacetic Acid and Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) or Hydrofluoro-olefines (HFOs).

A new format for a comprehensive Special Newsletter “Understanding TFA

EPEE Video : The EU F-Gas Phasedown.To assist EU Member States and to better inform their members and third countries, EPEE has produced a video, which summarises the phasedown, a critical element of the EU-F-Gas regulation.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE.

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– The list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 620  times.

NEW IN OUR LIBRARY

Implementing Regulations to the F-Gas Regulation EC 517 (2014).

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG MAY 2015

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download(*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

–    the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

–    data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

–    a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW LINKS ADDED

Scientific & Industrial Organisations – Global

Global Producers Forum

GFPF mission: To advocate for sensible reductions in the use of high global-warming fluorocarbons, especially in emissive applications.

To preserve choice for consumers and manufacturers, and to enable a practical timeline for adoption of replacement technology.

http://gfpf-forum.org

Press

Fridgehub

British Online directory, news and information service for Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps.

http://fridgehub.com/main-news

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG MAY 2016

Updated Factsheet Nr 8 “Trifluoroacetic Acid and Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)  or Hydrofluoro-olefines (HFOs).

A new format for a comprehensive Special Newsletter “’Understanding TFA’”.

EPEE Video : The EU F-Gas Phasedown.To assist EU Member States and to better inform their members and third countries, EPEE has produced a video, which summarises the phasedown, a critical element of the EU-F-Gas regulation.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”.

NEW ON FIGAROO: Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE.

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping. The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 634 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG NOVEMBER 2014

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO

  • Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon
  • LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

–    the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

–    data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

–    a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG NOVEMBER 2015

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO ‘“The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?’”

NEW ON FIGAROO – F-Gas Regulation Observatory On line

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download. Up to now it has been downloaded 562 times.

NEW IN OUR LIBRARY

EFCTC Position Paper 

European HFC Producers support action under the Montreal Protocol for a consumption cap and reduction of HFCs.

EFCTC Fact-sheet

Radiative Forcing of Well Mixed Greenhouse Gases

NEW LINKS ADDED

Official Organisations – International Organisations – Information Sources

UNEP HFC MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS – Updated Technical Fact Sheets

 

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG NOVEMBER 2016

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “Brock and Ollie – Closing the gap

SEE ALL BROCK & OLLIE VIDEOS here.

NEW ON FIGAROO Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITEEFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

* Up to now it has been downloaded 749 times.

NEW LINKS ADDED Scientific & Industrial OrganisationsAFEAS (Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study)General information about ozone depletion, global warming and alternative fluorocarbons plus production, sales and emissions data.The AFEAS website has been discontinued, but its Data content is available at https://agage.mit.edu/data/afeas-data

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG OCTOBER 2015

EPEE Video : The EU F-Gas Phasedown

To assist EU Member States and to better inform their members and third countries, EPEE has produced a video, which summarises the phasedown, a critical element of the EU-F-Gas regulation.

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO ‘“The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”’

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing

the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

Up to now it has been downloaded 569 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG OCTOBER 2016

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “Brock and Ollie – Closing the gap

“SEE ALL BROCK & OLLIE VIDEOS here.

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon.

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITEEFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.

* Up to now it has been downloaded 732 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG SEPTEMBER 2015

Updated versions of

Factsheet no 17 : The contribution of HFCs to European Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Factsheet no 18 : Selecting and Using GWP values for Refrigerants

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “The Revised F-Gas Regulation: What does it mean?”

NEW ON FIGAROO Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:

– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),

– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,

– a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.Up to now it has been downloaded 464 times.

NEW ON FLUOROCARBONS.ORG SEPTEMBER 2016

Special Review on: Understanding TFA

NEW BROCK & OLLIE VIDEO “Brock and Ollie – Closing the gap

SEE ALL BROCK & OLLIE VIDEOS here.

NEW ON FIGAROO

Following the entry into force of the F-Gas Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, an updated Figaroo section will be available soon

LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE

EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.

The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:- the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2), – data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends, – a GWP calculator for new blends.

* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.Up to now it has been downloaded 634 times.

NEW IN OUR LIBRARY

Updated version of Public Reports – Ozone

NEW ON OUR WEBSITE – MARCH 2017

www.fluorocarbons.org, EFCTC website, has been thoroughly renovated.

– Factsheets have been put together and became more informative LEARN ABOUT
– Brock and Ollie VIDEO – Closing the gap. See all Brock and Ollie VIDEOS.
INFOGRAPHICS
– NEW ON FIGAROO – F-Gas Regulation Regulatory On-line : Helpful information about the implementation of the F-Gas Regulation.
– LOG-BOOK : UPDATED LOG-BOOK DOWNLOAD ON OUR SITE
EFCTC presents its updated log book to download (*), which has been designed for operators of equipment containing F-Gases, in order to comply with Art. 6 of the 2014 F-Gas Regulation requirements on record keeping.
The previous Excel file has consequently been redesigned and supplemented with user-friendly menus containing:
– the list of equipment mentioned in the new Regulation (Art 4.2),
– data for more than 60 refrigerants and blends,
– a GWP calculator for new blends.
* The logbook is provided free of charge, but applicants must register prior to download.
Up to now it has been downloaded 693 times.

NEW REFRIGERANT R452A AS R404A REPLACEMENT: A LOWER GWP OPTION FOR TRANSPORT REFRIGERATION

In order to lower the Climate Impact of transport refrigeration equipment, a major manufacturer has launched a new line of trailer and self-powered truck units using R452A refrigerant (GWP of 2,140), anticipating the 2014 F-Gas Regulation which will soon ban high GWP R404A (GWP of 3,922).

Refrigerated transport requires safe, non-flammable and low toxicity refrigerants, able to work efficiently under a wide range of ambient conditions.

Despite its not-so-low GWP, R452A is considered to offer the right choice for this application among available drop in refrigerants. A blend of HFC-32/HFC-125/HFO-1234yf (11/59/30 weight %), it is non-flammable, closely matches R404A properties and performance, and offers a low compressor discharge temperature.

Source: ISN – International supermarket News

NEW STUDY CONFIRMS EARLY ACTION ON HFCs BRINGS SMALL BENEFITS FOR LIMITING MAXIMUM WARMING

A recent scientific paper confirms and substantiates earlier statements that early action to limit by 2030 SLCFs (short-life climate forcers, i.e. CH4, black carbon, tropospheric ozone and HFCs) brings limited benefits for limiting maximum warming temperature, and even smaller benefits in maximum 2 °C warming scenarios.

The study shows that neglecting linkages between the sources of these SLCFs and CO2 has led to an overestimation of the long-term climate benefits of controlling these pollutants in climate stabilization scenarios.

While previous studies had shown that immediate action to limit SLCFs could significantly minimize short-term climate warming, this study addresses not only short (decadal) but also long term (centennial) perspectives and assesses the impacts of SCLF and CO2 control measures in an integrated framework.

Following this approach it appears that focusing only on SLCFs bears a higher risk that CO2 stabilization is not achieved. Because of the very long environmental lifetime of CO2 (Note 1), short term CO2 mitigation is essential in order to limit climate change. These results imply that SLCF measures need to be considered complementary to, rather than a substitute for, early CO2 mitigation.

The study stresses the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF co-evolutions (see figure), noting that this linkage was often disregarded in earlier long-term projections, leading to overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios.   http://www.pnas.org/content/111/46/16325/F1.large.jpg    

Image_1_DECEMBER_2014

 

 

Figure : Influence of SLCF-CO2 linkages under varying CO2 mitigation

(Source : Rogelj, et al., http://www.pnas.org/content/111/46/16325/F1.large.jpg

CO2 paths show a world “with CO2 mitigation” and with “no CO2 mitigation”. HFC mitigation is shown for the lower end of “business as usual” and the adoption of early measures.

Note 1 : The millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2 D. Archer, V. Brovkin, Clim. Change 90, 283 (2008). http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10584-008-9413-1.pdf  

EFCTC Comment : Such studies reinforce the need to minimize CO2 emissions, for example by ensuring that refrigeration and thermal insulation are accomplished with the highest possible efficiency (activities in which HFCs can have a positive role in reducing an overall climate impact that includes CO2 emissions). Even so it is important to minimise all GHG emissions as appropriate, including HFCs, which can be most effectively controlled through a global cap and reduction similar to that required by the revised European F-Gas Regulation EU 517/2014.

NEW SUPERCRITICAL HFC-134A ORC SYSTEM WITH INCREASED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

A new two-stage supercritical HFC-134a ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) technology has been demonstrated to be 15-20 % more efficient than commonly installed single stage subcritical turbines.

The supercritical system was first tried in a 500 kW (electrical production) test turbine, and, after confirmation of its expected energy improvement, scaled up to a 10 MW geothermal power unit, transforming heat into electrical power from hot brine at 152 °C.

The working fluid HFC-134a did not decompose during the turbine operation and, being non flammable, was appreciated for simplifying the authorization and design phases, compared to hydrocarbon fluids.

Source: ENEL

New video – Brock & Ollie – Closing the gap

NEWLY DEVELOPED CIRCUIT BREAKER MONITOR GETS US R&D AWARD

A newly developed Circuit Breaker Performance Monitor and Data Acquisition System won a R&D Award for its ability to grant access to real-time information and ultimately reduce SF6 emissions.
The monitor should allow major overhauls to take place every 18 years instead of 9, and to identify SF6 leaks sooner, which would allow a planned outage rather than a forced one.

Newsflash: No more confusion on the definition of a ‘one-component-foam’: all sizes of dispensing units are banned 1)

No more confusion on the definition of a ‘one-component-foam’: all sizes of dispensing units are banned 1):

Over the past months, different interpretations have circulated on the definition of a “One-Component Foam” (OCF). As OCF is generally placed on the market in cans with a content of ? 1000 ml, the latter has been interpreted as a volume limit. It has been assumed by some that products fulfilling the definition of OCF in the F-Gas Regulation, but placed on the market in larger dispensing units, would not be covered by the ban in Annex III, point 8.

When this question was raised with the EU Commission, DG CLIMA gave the following clear answer: ‘…our view is that since the definition of OCF does not say anything on size of the “single aerosol dispenser”, there is also no limit to how large such an aerosol dispenser must or must not be for the purpose of the prohibition’.

Whilst this guidance from the Commission has not been legally tested in Court, it appears to be a clear and definitive interpretation of the coverage of Annex III, point 8 of the F-gas Regulation.

1) Except when required by national safety regulations or that contain HFCs with a GWP of less than 150

NOTIFICATION BY MEMBER STATES OF PENALTIES APPLICABLE TO INFRINGEMENTS OF THE F-GAS REGULATION : EIGHT STILL MISSING

In line with Article 25 of the EU F-Gas regulation no 517 (2014), the EU Commission has made public Member States notifications on national penalties applicable to infringements of the Regulation.

However, while Member States had to notify those provisions to the Commission by 1 January 2017 at the latest, according to the data published, it appears that eight Member States haven’t yet communicated the required information.

Notifications can be found here : https://circabc.europa.eu/w/browse/ff6ef1f4-c2d3-4ee2-8762-7994d9b829b4

OZONE HOLE 2016 BACK TO NORMAL

The 2016 Antarctic Ozone Hole size reached 23 million km2, 5 million km2 smaller than the record 2015 hole, whose larger size was due to colder-than-average temperatures in the stratosphere, while warmer temperatures were encountered this year.

It was similar to the 2013 hole and somewhat lower than the 2006-2015 mean.

Newsletter November Picture 1 2016 Southhern Hemisphere Ozone Hole Area

The 2016 NOAA Ozone Depleting Gas Index (ODGI) presents a continuous decrease since 2002 for the Antarctic atmosphere, and still projects the recovery of the ozone layer to occur around 2070 in the Antarctic and in mid-latitudes around 2045.

Newsletter NOVEMBER 2016 Graph 2 NOAA

Source : NASA

PARIS MUSEE D’ORSAY EQUIPPED WITH HFC AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

The prestigious Musée d’Orsay in Paris has recently installed a new HFC-based Air Conditioning system for preserving its sensitive indoor environment, crucial to the works of art and providing comfort and safety to 3.5 million-plus visitors a year and its staff.The Museum had to replace four HCFC-22 chillers to conform to HCFC phase-out legislation, and took the opportunity to reduce energy consumption and operating costs, while increasing sustainability.Four high-efficiency HFC-134a chillers and four custom-built cooling towers in stainless steel were installed, with a total cooling capacity of 2.3 MW. Chiller-plant controls with refrigerant monitoring and leak detection help to further optimize the whole system. Source: MBS – Modern Building Services

PRESTIGIOUS ENERGY EFFICIENCY AWARD FOR A HFC-134A MARINE HEAT PUMP FOR AN 18TH CENTURY MANSION

A leading National Trust property – the Trust’s largest oil consumer – has won the 2015 Renewable Energy Project of the Year for a 300 kW marine source heat pump project using HFC-134a.

Newsletter October 2015 National Trust property

The heat pump replaces the ageing heating system, which was using 128,000 litres of oil each year.

The project was installed at Plas Newydd, a mansion built in the 18th Century and set on the edge of the Menai Strait on the Isle of Anglesey.

The 4×75 kW installation utilizes the tidal currents of the Menai Strait, and is currently operating with a COP (Coefficient of performance) of 4.06 against a design COP of 3.4.

A small amount of sea water, at between 7 and 17 C, is pumped through a network of pipes to and from a heat exchanger on the shore, from which another pipe then takes water up 30 metres of cliff face to the mansion’s machine room, where the heat pumps further increase the temperature of the water to be fed to the mansion’s heating system. The HFC-134a heat pump was projected to enable an 80% reduction in carbon emissions as well as providing conservation-grade heat for the historic property.

Source: Carbon Trust and equipment manufacturer.

QUEBEC AUTHORITIES INCLUDE HFCS IN AN ARENAS REFRIGERATION UPGRADE BUDGET

For the modernization of arenas refrigeration systems still using HCFC-22 (and a few CFC-12) in Quebec (Canada), the “Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport » (MELS) has decided to subsidize projects based on ammonia, CO2 or new fluorocarbons refrigerant blends with a GWP lower than 700.

Retaining fluorocarbon refrigerants, despite their rather high GWPs, resulted from taking into consideration the efficiency of leakage control of new modern systems, and because HFC systems are by far less expensive : the Ministry presented investment figures of 0.4-0.75 M CAD for fluorocarbons refrigeration systems, vs up to 2.3 M CAD for ammonia and 0.7-1.3 M CAD for CO2.

According to the Quebec arenas inventory, there are 420 arenas and 75 curling centers, of which more than 300 have HCFC-22 refrigeration systems and a small number still CFC-12 systems. The renovation program will eliminate the arenas ODS emissions, and should reduce by 97-100 % their greenhouse gas emissions.

Source: Journal de Montreal.com

R-410A BASED HEAT PUMPS FOR THREE FRENCH STADIUMS HOSTING EURO2016 FOOTBALL MATCHES

R-410A based reversible and multi-purpose heat pumps have been installed in three French stadiums hosting the finals of the Euro2016 football competition.

The famous Paris “Parc des Princes” has been renovated, and two R-410A multi-purpose heat pumps installed to provide both in summer and winter air conditioning for enclosed spaces and sanitary hot water production, for a total cooling capacity of 1,194 kW and heating capacity of 1,214 kW.

The new multifunctional Bordeaux stadium, dedicated to sport and culture, has been equipped with one R-410A based reversible heat pump and one multi-purpose heat pump, providing comfort all year long.

The recently completed Nice stadium, also hosting a Museum of Sport, has air conditioning delivered by a multi-purpose R-410A heat pump.

Source: HVAC Intelligence

R-410A CHILLERS FOR THE FRANKFURT AIRPORT PIER A-PLUS

R-410A VRF (variable refrigerant flow) chillers have been installed for the comfort cooling of the customer area in the recent Frankfurt Airport Pier-A Plus.

As a first step, in the 2500 m2 duty free area, two 200 kW cooling capacity VRF water cooled chillers for 2 large stores, and two 50 kW for smaller shops have been installed.

This choice resulted from the high dissipated heat load produced by the lighting, the high number of passengers and the nearby flight traffic, and from the high installation density, requiring an economic and technically optimized solution.

The new terminal features state-of-the-art terminal facilities for up to six million passengers a year. The terminal provides seven terminal positions for wide-body aircraft, and especially for the Airbus A380.

Source:  Die Kälte  (require subscription)

R-410A FOR A LARGE GROUND SOURCE PROJECT IN THE UK

R-410A Chillers were installed in what is assumed to be the largest open loop ground source project of its kind in the UK.

Three 500 kW chillers supply six multi-storey buildings with comfort cooling and hot water, transferring heat from 8 deep water wells.

The chillers operate in heating, cooling and mixed modes, ensuring that performance and efficiency is optimized across the chillers’ range.

Heat is produced on-site in a combined heat and power plan (CHP), and supplied to homes through a district heating network, while the electricity produced by the CHP is used to run the chillers.

Source: Itech.be

R-410A HEAT PUMP FOR HEATING A CITY OF PARIS SWIMMING POOL FROM SEWER WATER

A 80 kW R-410A water/water heat pump is the key element of a system capturing heat from sewer water to heat the water of a City of Paris swimming pool.

Sewage water, being fed by sanitary and domestic uses, has a temperature of between 13 and 20 C throughout the year.

A heat exchanger – located on the bottom of sewer pipes at a distance from the heat pump and the pool – is used to heat an intermediate water loop, serving as the cold side of the R-410A heat pump. The warm side water at 37 C is sent to the swimming pool heating system, in order to feed the showers and maintain the swimming pool water at a temperature of 26 C. These temperatures allow the heat pump a COP higher than 4.

Source: GC  – Génie Ckimatique Magazine (FR)

R-410A HEAT PUMPS FOR A DANISH LOW ENERGY HOUSES PROJECT

R-410A heat pumps have been installed to supply heating and hot water for a Danish project of 75 houses, designed to be low energy and carbon neutral.

Houses were constructed in 5 clusters of 15 houses sharing a single 24 kW air/water heat pump, able to maintain their heating capacity down to -15 C.

In order to be self sufficient the heat pumps are powered by a solar cell system.

Source : Manufacturer information

R-410A ROOFTOP UNITS AND HEAT PUMP FOR A NEW HIGHLY EFFICIENT ITALIAN SHOPPING CENTER

Sixteen R-410A air conditioning rooftop units and one R-410A heat pump will be installed in a new Italian shopping center.
The 72,000 m2 building HVAC system has been designed with a strong focus on sustainability and energy efficiency.
The 16 air source roof top units provide a total air flow of 500,000 m3/h used to air condition and recover rejected heat from the mall area.
The air renewal system is the same for all shops and is based on a air/air R-410A heat pump providing pre-heating in winter and pre-cooling in summer.
Source: Cooling Post

R-410A TO REPLACE HCFC-22 IN A REFRIGERATION UNIT FOR A BRITISH LPG SITE

A LPG site refrigeration system using HCFC-22 – under a British government temporary exemption to the EU service ban for HCFC-22 – has recently been converted to the refrigerant R-410A.

In the process of identifying alternatives to HCFC-22, an ammonia/CO2 system was found to be technically unfeasible, R-507, with a too high GWP of 3,985 is subject to a service ban from 2020, for virgin refrigerant for this application in line with the EU F-Gas Regulation 517/2014, so that R-410A emerged as the only economically and technically feasible alternative.

The HCFC-22 temporary exemption was granted due to the importance of the LPG facility for the Forties pipeline system, which delivers approximately 25% of the UK gas production.

Source : Cooling Post

R-448A REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS PREFERED TO CO2 FOR AN AMERICAN SUPERMARKET CHAIN

A R-448A commercial refrigeration system was chosen by an American supermarket chain for one of its new large supermarket.

R-448A has a moderate GWP of 1,386 and is nonflammable. With more that 50 percent of the floor space dedicated to fresh food, the medium temperature system has been shown to deliver as much as 16 percent reduction in energy consumption compared to systems presently in place.

R-448A was selected because of its excellent energy efficiency and its cost effectiveness, compared to a CO2 solution, which would have cost 20 to 30 percent more.

Source : Product manufacturer

R-452B SELECTED FOR A NEW LINE OF AIR-CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT FOR THE US MARKET

A new line of R-452B unitary air conditioning units has been introduced to the US market.

R-452B, a blend of HFC-32, HFC-125 and HFO-1234yf (67/7/26 weight %), having a GWP of 698, is a lower GWP alternative to R-410A (GWP =2,088).

It is mildly flammable, presents around 5 % energy efficiency improvement compared to R-410A, and maintains its performance at high ambient temperatures better than R-410A.

Note : R-452B is considered to be on the lower-flammability side of the 2L spectrum by equipment manufacturers.

Source: Cooling Post

REPLACEMENT OF R-404A BY A MORE EFFICIENT HFC-HFO BLEND FOR AN ITALIAN SUPERMARKET

An Italian supermarket has replaced the medium-temperature refrigerant R-404A (GWP = 3,922) of a R-404A/CO2 cascade refrigeration system by the lower GWP refrigerant blend R-449A (GWP = 1,397) – composition HFC-32 /HFC-125 /HFO-1234yf /HFC-134a, 24.3/24.7/25.3/25.7 % by weight.

The replacement of R-404A allows the supermarket not to be concerned by the F-Gas Regulation No 517 (2014) provision prohibiting the use of virgin HFCs with a GWP > 2,500 from January 2020 in systems having a charge size greater than 40 tonnes CO2-equivalent (Table 2 of Commission document).

Comparing the energy consumption before and after the conversion revealed that power savings up to 9 % had been achieved.

Source: ACR – Heat Pumps today

RIO SUMMER 2016 OLYMPICS TO USE ONLY HFC BASED HVAC EQUIPMENT IN NEW VENUES

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipments for the Rio 2016 Olympics will all be based on R-410A solutions in all 12 new sports arenas and auxiliary facilities in both Barra and Deodoro Olympic Parks. The solutions provided include a combination of high efficiency VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow) products and large tonnage chillers.

Air condition and chillers equipment will be installed in all facilities to ensure ventilation at a consistent temperature range throughout the Summer 2016 Sports Games, to ensure proper cooling for sport activities.

Source :Cooling Post

SAFETY FIRST WHEN CHOOSING A REFRIGERANT

As refrigerant use practices are constantly evolving, particularly to establish which refrigerants are suitable for which applications, EFCTC has published a factsheet presenting objective basic accident and incident statistics for all refrigerants types, including alternative refrigerants and Fluorocarbons.

The factsheet presents the results of a non-comprehensive survey/collection of the global frequency of accidents due to refrigerant releases in the last eight years , in order to assess the safety of all refrigerants : fluorocarbons, ammonia (R-717), hydrocarbons (mainly propane R-290, propylene R-1270, butane R-600, isobutane R-600a ), and CO2 (carbon dioxide R-744).

It is widely recognized that refrigerants are selected on the basis of a number of criteria which include safety, energy efficiency and environmental impact (see Note 1).

Fluorocarbons (HFCs) have a favourable safety profile since they display low flammability and low toxicity characteristics.

Alternative refrigerants such as ammonia, hydrocarbons and CO2 are used on a much more limited basis than the fluorocarbons (HFCs) because they do not easily meet the currently applicable standards and local codes designed to provide safety in use for the general public, and to contribute to safe servicing and maintenance for engineers. It is, for example, well-known that ammonia is toxic, that hydrocarbons are extremely flammable and that CO2 is an asphyxiant that requires very high pressure to operate.

Factsheets on published refrigerant-related accidents :

  • Safety first when choosing a refrigerant!
  • Database on published refrigerant-related accidents

Note 1) Also mentioned in the Montreal Protocol October 2013 Decision XXV 5 on Alternative refrigerants to ozone depleting substances

SCIENTIC STUDY OF STRATOSPHERIC AIR CIRCULATION SUGGESTS AN EARLIER OZONE LAYER RECOVERY

CFCs are generally very stable in the troposphere (low atmosphere) and degrade to release ozone destroying chlorine only in the stratosphere. Such Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) are carried to the stratosphere by natural air circulation and so the rate of addition of chlorine to the stratosphere is  linked to the rate of exchange of air between troposphere and stratosphere and the length of time it remains there.

In the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion in 2006 and subsequent Assessments, this “residence time” was estimated to be around 8 years for transport between the lower atmosphere and the Antarctic pole.

A recent scientific paper has however shown that the residence time of air – and of the ODS it contains, is much shorter than current models, since 75% of it will have returned to the troposphere within only 3 years only (figure 1).

This much shorter residence time can have important consequences for the recovery of the ozone layer (figure 2 from the ODGI page).


Firstly, with a faster decay rate, the EESC slope in figure 2 would be steeper.

Secondly, moving the curve to earlier years, because the stratospheric circulation is faster, as suggested in the paper, will give a higher 1980 value (reference year when there was no unacceptable ozone depletion).

Consequently the return to pre-ODS levels would be speeded up both by the faster stratospheric circulation and because of the higher target level.

SERVICING R-404A MARITIME REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS WITH R-407F

A global maritime industry group has successfully tested the addition of lower GWP R-407F (GWP = 1 824) to R-404A (GWP = 3 922) refrigeration systems.

Faced to the coming phase-out (note) of R-404A, tests carried out by their technical service on R-404A/R-407F mixtures showed no loss of performance, or compatibility issues compared to pure R-404A.

The group has therefore decided when necessary to top up R-407F in existing R-404A systems, which provides significant advantages in terms of time and costs, avoiding the lengthy process of recovering 300-400 kg R-404A and disposing of it.

Except in the US where mixing refrigerants is forbidden, the process is generally accepted, with the only requirements of changing the nameplate and updating the logbook with the added quantities of R-407F.

NB :  Regulation 517 014 summary From 1 January 2020, ban of servicing existing refrigeration equipment with a charge size over 40 tonnes of CO2 equivalent (i.e. 10.2 kg R-404A) with HFC of GWP >2500.

Source : Cooling Post

SF6 GAS ANALYSER HELPING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE, AVOIDING UNNECESSARY EMISSIONS

An SF6 gas analyser has been designed to test SF6 in electrical equipment without service disruption. It draws a sample of SF6 from the working equipment, analyses it in accordance with prescribed testing requirements, and pumps it back into the equipment.

The analyser helps to perform regular analysis as part of a condition maintenance schedule, ensuring that equipment and personnel are properly protected.

When partial arcing or a failure occurs within electrical equipment, this can cause the creation of decomposition products. Early identification of excess decomposition products will help to eliminate power outages and failures, alongside unnecessary inspections, which would cause unavoidable SF6 emissions.

Source : Gas World  

SF6 INSULATED SUBSTATIONS HAVE A BETTER LIFE CYCLE IMPACT THAN AIR INSULATED ONES

Having evaluated the Life Cycle Characteristics (cost, reliability, environmental impact) of electrical substations, a recent study concludes that SF6 insulated substations (GIS) perform better than air insulated ones (AIS). GIS have a higher investment costs, but have a better reliability, which leads to lower operating and maintenance costs due to their encapsulated design. On the contrary, AIS have lower installation costs, but they are more susceptible to disturbances and have therefore high maintenance and operating costs. Because of the dielectric strength of SF6, the space requirement for GIS is only 10–25% of what is required for AIS. Source: Science direct

SPANISH SUPERMARKETS REPLACE R-507 WITH LOWER GWP R-448A

R-448A has been selected for a Spanish supermarket chain for the conversion of around 60 stores from R-507 to the lower GWP R-448A.
R-448A (blend of HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-134a/HFO-1234yf/HFO-1234zeE, 26/26 /21/20/7 % weight) has a GWP of 1,386, instead of 3,985 for R-507.
The change of refrigerant and the modernization of the equipment have also allowed improvement of energy efficiency.
Source : Manufacturer information

Special Review on : Understanding TFA

See: https://www.fluorocarbons.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/EFCTC-Infographics-7_Trifluoroacetic_Acid_TFA.pdf

SUCCES FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF CFCS BY HFCS IN PHARMACEUTICAL AEROSOLS

Since the start of the Montreal Protocol, the use of CFCs for Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) for the treatment of respiratory illnesses, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has dropped from a 1997 peak of around 10,000 tonnes to about 300 tonnes in 2013.

According to IPAC (International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium), 2015 will be the final year of essential use exemptions for metered dose inhalers (MDIs).

MDIs were CFC based, but the Montreal Protocol Parties decided to leave them outside the CFC ban decisions and place them under the regime of “Essential Use Exemptions”

CFCs have been replaced by HFCs (95 per cent HFC-134a, 5 per cent HFC-227ea) in new MDIs formulations. For an approximate 630 million HFC based MDIs manufactured annually worldwide, 9,400 tonnes HFCs were used in 2014.

By moving from CFC MDIs to HFC MDIs, besides the suppression of their action on the ozone layer, their climate impact has dropped by 90 %.

Alternatives to HFC based MDIs do exist but the Montreal Protocol Technical Options Committee considers that “it is not yet technically or economically feasible to avoid HFC MDIs completely.” EFCTC Comment : According to Annex III Point 17 of the F-Gas Regulation EU 517/2014, HFC based medical aerosols are exempt from the “Placing On The Market Prohibitions”

Source : 2014 REPORT OF THE MEDICAL TECHNICAL OPTIONS COMMITTEE

SUPERCOOLING AND SUPERCHILLING OF FOODSTUFF INCREASE FOOD SHELF LIFE AND REDUCE WASTE

As part of an EU funded project, FRISBEE (Food Refrigeration Innovations for Safety, consumer Benefit, Environmental impact and Energy optimization along cold chain in Europe), supercooling and superchilling tests have demonstrated the potential to enable safe, high quality and long term storage of food without detrimental food quality effects for the consumer. In addition, reduced heat loads and higher storage temperatures result in energy and environmental benefits.

Supercooling (sometimes called undercooling), is the process of lowering the temperature below its freezing point but without freezing. Superchilling allows a low ice fraction by partial freezing so that only a small proportion of the water content is in the form of ice.

These technologies have shown their ability for maintaining quality and freshness in a variety of foodstuff, in particular fish and meat, but also vegetables. They offer a more efficient method of preservation compared to deep freezing, as it is both faster to achieve and requires less energy. One of the main advantages of superchilling is that, because ice is not required to transport the foodstuff, the space taken by the ice can be replaced by food, decreasing the number of required journeys. Shelf-life improvement of up to 100 % compared with traditionally chilled products has been estimated, which results in a significant waste reduction.

Other information : IIFIR

THE IMPORTANCE OF REFRIGERATION TO REDUCE GLOBAL FOOD WASTE

The second Global Cold Chain Summit took place in Singapore in December 2015 and highlighted the challenge to reduce global food wastage, where refrigeration plays a major role.

Not only does food wastage impact on world hunger, it has an important environmental impact. According to the FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization), the embodied CO2 in the food we waste represents 3.6 gigatonnes CO2 (“compared at a country level, that would make food wastage the third largest emitter of CO2 in the world”).

The IIR (International Institute of Refrigeration) estimates that 23 per cent of food loss and waste in developing countries is due to the lack of a cold chain.

Refrigeration is recognized as the best technology to prolong the shelf life of perishable food, and new technologies and practices for a more efficient cold chain could bring significant progress to reduce global emissions, improve economic activity and help reduce world hunger.

Source: RAC

THE KIGALI HFC AMENDMENT TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL

The 28th Meeting of the Parties (MOP28) to the Montreal Protocol, held in Kigali, Rwanda, has adopted an amendment for a global cap and reduction for HFC consumption and production on a GWP-weighted basis.

The amendment involves a three-step approach, differentiating firstly developed countries (with some delays for countries from the Russian Federation), secondly most of the developing countries, and thirdly a group of developing countries presenting a High Ambient Temperature (HAT).

Developed countries will start the HFC phase down in 2019, reaching 85% reduction (based on 2011-2013 level) by 2036. Most developing countries will freeze their consumption by 2024, reaching 80% reduction (based on 2020-2022 level) by 2045.A third group, lead by India **, have agreed a freeze by 2028, reaching 80% reduction (based on 2024-2026 level) by 2047.

** Group 2: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, India, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan

Other agreements should cover:

Standards

Parties are expected to work towards ensuring global industry standards enable the safe introduction of low-GWP alternatives to HFCs. Energy Efficiency

Parties are expected to agree a way forward to maximize energy efficiency in the transition out of HFCs.

Source : EFCTC Position and Cooling Post

Note : EFCTC notes that the global warming impact of HFC emissions worldwide is currently estimated to represent less than 2% of that from all greenhouse gases emissions.

The revised F-Gas Regulation has been published in the Official Journal of the European Union

The revised F-Gas Regulation No 517/2014 has been published on May 20 in the Official Journal of the European Union. The text enters into force on June 9 and will apply from 2015 onwards.

To clarify the procedure to be followed by new entrants to become eligible to receive quota, the European Commission published its ‘Notice to producers and importers of hydrofluorocarbons and to new undertakings intending to place hydrofluorocarbons in bulk on the market in the European Union’ on May 21.
Currently the necessary implementing acts are being prepared to render the Regulation properly applicable by January 2015. Official information can be obtained through the European Commission’s website

https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/index_en.htm

TRADING BETWEEN CO2 AND HFCS OR METHANE EMISSIONS REDUCTION STRATEGIES SHOULD BE DISCOURAGED

Having considered emission reduction strategies for CO2 and compared them with strategies for SLCP (note 1) a recent scientific paperconcludes that the strategies should be pursued in parallel to mitigate future global temperature increase.

While HFCs or CH4 reductions have an immediate impact on the climate, this will happen for only a short time since they have a low atmospheric lifetime. These strategies can slow the temperature increase, but only in the next decades.

The only way to permanently slow the rate of warming is by reducing CO2 emissions, taking into account of the very long atmospheric lifetime of CO2 and its long-term warming impact; more than 20 % will remain for thousands of years in the atmosphere.

EFCTC supports proposed regulation

With the incoming EU F-Gas Regulation Review, and a future decision to regulate HFCs under the Montreal Protocol, some of the SLCP emissions will be reduced. However, importantly, the other aspect of climate mitigation, reducing CO2 emissions in parallel, must not be compromised by reducing the energy efficiency of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration equipment (see note 2).

Note 1 : Short-lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) are substances such as black carbon, tropospheric ozone, methane and some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which have a relatively short lifespan in the atmosphere compared to carbon dioxide (CO2) and other longer-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs).
Note 2.: Energy-related CO2 emissions account for over 90% of the climate impact of typical air conditioning and refrigeration equipment.

UK GUIDANCE NOTES ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE F-GAS REGULATION 2014

Comprehensive Guidance has been published on the detailed implementation of the new 2014 F-Gas Regulation 517/2014, prepared on behalf of the UK DEFRA (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs).

30 Support Guidance notes are available as listed below.

Information Sheet 30 includes an index of available guidance and a glossary of terms.

In addition the British ACRIB (The Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Industry Board) has published two notes: •

The F Gas Support detailed guides for users, contractors and suppliers cover the following topics:

Refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pumps • 

  • IS 1    Domestic Refrigeration •
  • IS 2    Commercial Refrigeration •
  • IS 3    Industrial Refrigeration         Updated January 8th 2015 •
  • IS 4    Transport Refrigeration •
  • IS 5    Stationary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pumps •
  • IS 6    Mobile Air-Conditioning

Other end user Sectors •  

  • IS 7    Insulating Foam •
  • IS 8    Aerosols •
  • IS 9    Solvents •
  • IS 10   Fire Protection Systems •
  • IS 11   High Voltage Switchgear •
  • IS 12   Magnesium •
  • IS 13   Semiconductors

Information for contractors, manufacturers and importers • 

  • IS 14   Refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump Contractors •
  • IS 15   Fire protection system Contractors •
  • IS 16   Refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump Manufacturers •
  • IS 17   Producers, importers and exporters •
  • IS 18   F-Gas Wholesalers •
  • IS 19   Customer Screening •
  • IS 20   Annual Reporting

Information on Training and Certification •  

  • IS 21   Training and Certification Refrigeration, Air-conditioning and Heat Pumps •
  • IS 22   Training and Certification Mobile Air-Conditioning •
  • IS 23   Training and Certification Fire Protection Systems •
  • IS 24   Training and Certification High Voltage Electrical Switchgear

Other Important Information •    

  • IS 25   Understanding CO2 thresholds •
  • IS 26   Summary of bans related to new equipment and products •
  • IS 27   Flammability issues •
  • IS 28   The HFC Phase Down Process •
  • IS 29   Low GWP Alternatives •
  • IS 30   Index and Glossary

Download the F Gas Support Guides here

UK MANUFACTURER SELECTS A NEW LOW GWP SUBSTITUTE FOR R-404A

In anticipation of the F-Gas Regulation 517 (2014) which will ban HFCs with a GWP higher than 2,500 by 2020 in stationary refrigeration equipment, new blends having a lower GWP alternative to R-404A (GWP of 3,922) continue to be introduced for specific applications.

R-448A (blend of HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-134a/HFO-1234yf/HFO-1234zeE, 26/26/21/20/7 % weight – GWP of 1,386) has recently been selected by a British equipment manufacturer, for a range of freezer and blast chiller products, both delivering lower environmental impact and improved energy efficiency.

Source: RACplus.com

US AHRI CREATES FLAMMABLE REFRIGERANTS SUBCOMMITTEE TO ENSURE THE SAFE USE OF 2L REFRIGERANTS

The U.S. Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has set up a subcommittee to conduct a review of the safety issuesaround mildly flammable refrigerants, to complete the necessary research, and share the results with regulators and standard developers.

Refrigerants such as HFC-32, HFO-1234yf and HFO-1234zeE are designated byASHRAE Standard 34 as mildly flammable, belonging to a class 2L that was recently created.

They are flammable, since they have flammability limits, but they are typically difficult to ignite. ASHRAE Standard 34 considers refrigerants to be designed as 2L if they

–    Require more than 100 g/m3 to burn (typically 300 g/m3 – Propane 38 g/m3)

–    Have a heat of combustion lower than 19 000 kJ/kg (Propane : 46 300 kJ/kg)

–    Have a burning velocity lower than 10 cm/s (Propane : 46 cm/s)

With the growing use of 2L refrigerants, there is a need for further research in order to provide scientific results necessary to support the safe use of these refrigerants (example of a recently granted research project).

The Flammable Refrigerants Subcommittee will determine gaps in existing flammable refrigerant research. It aims to help industry to understand the comparative risk of using 2L refrigerants with those used today.

Source: AHRI Net and Propane data

US AHRI NEW PROJECT TO EVALUATE IGNITION ENERGY POTENTIAL OF 2L REFRIGERANTS

The U.S. Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched a new research project to evaluate the energy produced by potential ignition sources in residential applications compared to the minimum ignition energies of A2L refrigerants.

Low-GWP refrigerants are generally well-characterized in terms of their LFLs (lower flammability limits), heats of combustion, and flame speeds. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding their susceptibility to ignition from sources commonly encountered in household and industrial environments, such as open flames, electric sparks, or hot surfaces.

The results of the research are expected to be useful for expand the existing risk assessment studies of A2L refrigerants by providing further detail.

Source : AHRI

US APPLIANCES MANUFACTURERS CHALLENGE HFC PROPOSED PHASE-DOWN ON THE GROUNDS OF SAFETY AND COSTS

On the grounds of safety, costs and the freedom of refrigerant choice, the North American Association of Food Equipment Manufacturers (NAFEM) has raised objections towards a proposed regulation ” Rule 19- Climate-friendly Refrigerant Alternatives” from the US EPA Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program, which would affect a number of categories of refrigeration equipments : Commercial refrigeration equipment, Automatic ice-makers, Walk-in coolers and freezers.

The SNAP Proposed Rule intends to prohibit some HFC uses as part of their phase-down, and to encourage the use of lower GWP alternatives such as butane, iso-butane, propane, R-441A (ethane R-170/propane R-290/isobutane R-600a/butane R-600 blend) and HFC-32.

Editor’s Note : Rule 16 (May 21, 2012) has already accepted HFO-1234yf and all other HFOs are accepted by the US EPA since May 2013.

The association is questioning the EPA proposal on the grounds of safety, cost and product freedom of choice, as the proposed rule would create a number of safety and business concerns.

The flammability of alternatives may affect factories, service and operators, and would place an undue burden on small businesses, including cost increases, plant retrofit, insurance, distribution and employee training.

HFC bans might contradict the US Department of Energy (DOE) final rule regarding energy conservation standards for commercial refrigeration equipment, which is also opposed by NAFEM, arguing that some suggested technologies do not exist or could not be implemented

Existing units should be allowed to continue operating, and manufacturers allowed to keep their freedom of refrigerant choice.

See also “ “Safety first when choosing a refrigerant!

Source: NAFEM – North american Association of Food Equipment Manufacturers

US EPA WARNING AGAINST THE USE OF PROPANE REFRIGERANTS IN EXISTING MOBILE AND STATIONARY AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

The US EPA has issued a safety warning regarding the use of flammable refrigerants in car and home air conditioning equipment.

A number of such refrigerant, called “22a” or “R-22a”, are indeed labeled with a confusing name since they contain hydrocarbons such as propane – and not HCFC-22 (R-22), as they are being marketed to recharge existing air conditioning equipment not designed for flammable refrigerants.

These refrigerants have neither been submitted nor approved by EPA, who warns that this situation poses a threat to homeowners and to service technicians because the systems can catch fire and even explode.

In addition, EPA reminds that it “has not found acceptable any flammable hydrocarbon refrigerants for use in existing air conditioning systems designed for use with HCFC-22. Use of flammables as a retrofit in equipment that was designed for nonflammable materials presents risks to consumers, to the equipment, and to service technicians who may not be prepared for handling flammable refrigerants.”

EFCTC Note : such accidents already occurred in New Zealand

Source: US EPA

US RESEARCH PROJECT ON MILDLY FLAMMABLE REFRIGERANTS

The US Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) flammable refrigerants subcommittee, ASHRAE, and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are supporting a collaborative effort to fund research about mildly flammable (ASHRAE class A2L) refrigerants, such as HFC-32, HFO-1234yf or HFO-1234ze(E), in order to allow their safe use.

The Committee has identified the following key research topics, and is developing research projects to address them.

  • Benchmarking risks from real-life leak and ignition testing
  • Assessing flammable refrigerants’ post-ignition risk
  • Determining set charge limits for various types of equipment employing flammable refrigerants
  • Investigating hot surface ignition temperature for A2L refrigerants
  • Creating a guide to A2L refrigerant handling and system installation and servicing
  • Detecting A2L refrigerant leaks in HVACR equipment

Ultimately, the intention is to update ASHRAE standards ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2013, Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems, and ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants, and fast-track these into the international codes.

 Source: RAC

US STUDY IDENTIFIES POTENTIALLY VIABLE CANDIDATES FOR SUBSTITUTING R-410A IN AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

A detailed study of candidate chemicals able to replace R-410A in small air conditioning equipment has identified, after screening a comprehensive database of potential candidates, 27 fluids that had the desired characteristics for refrigerant use : a low GWP, no ODP, thermodynamic properties matching the application, chemical stability, no or limited flammability, lack of toxicity, being the most important.

However, all the 27 identified fluids are flammable, some of them only mildly, and many of them highly, which makes them typically not appropriate for some larger systems. Other limitations caused the authors to conclude a number of the remaining fluids should not be retained for some air conditioning applications : CO2 refrigerant is a high pressure fluid that has some performance disadvantages for small systems or would requires new designs; ammonia is toxic and corrosive; and novel molecules present unknown safety risks.

The study major conclusion is that “there is a very limited number of viable candidates for single component low-GWP alternatives for small air conditioning systems, especially for refrigerants with volumetric capacities similar to R-410A”.

The authors state that didn’t find a perfect refrigerant fluid to replace R-410A in the future. As they argue that it is unlikely that other new fluids might be found, they insist policymakers to understand the limits and trade-offs of the HFC substitution when considering phase-down schedules.

While the study focused on pure fluids, some blends were considered, involving a compromise: low GWP blends present an increased flammability, and conversely, less flammable blends present a higher GWP.

A huge number of unitary air conditioning equipment is installed worldwide, and their penetration is going to increase, especially in developing countries. R-410A is presently the dominant refrigerant in this application, with HCFC-22 still allowed in developing countries. However, due to its GWP of 2,088, R-410a will eventually have to be phased down, in line with the EU F-Gas Regulation and the Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol, so that substitutes must be implemented.

US WHITE HOUSE RECOGNIZES HFO AS POLYURETHANE SPRAY FOAM INSULATION BLOWING AGENT FOR ITS LOWER CLIMATE IMPACT

An American Polyurethane spray foam insulation producer has been hailed by the White House for its commitment to use low GWP HFO-1234zeE as the blowing agent for its entire production line by 2016, as part of the US Climate action Plan.

HFO-1234zeE has a GWP of 1 (IPCC value), is non flammable and is not classed as Volatile Organic Compound. It provides PU foam with an excellent insulating value.

Spray foam insulation is mainly applied on building roofs and in private house attics.   Spray foam is used to insulate, provide air sealing and improve structural strength in buildings. The insulation potential of spray foam is dependent upon the insulating gas in the cells of the polyurethane foam. In addition to the insulation performance, polyurethane foams used for insulation require inherently superior dimensional stability and resistance to fire.

Source: Business Wire

VERY SERIOUS AMMONIA ACCIDENTS

Since the publication of the Factsheet on refrigerant-related accidents, several serious ammonia refrigeration accidents have occurred unfortunately.

These accidents caused :

  • In Germany, in one accident (Zahnarztpraxis in Bawinkel) 4 injuries and in another 12 injuries, two of which were severe (Frosta – Bremerhaven)
  • In India (Vashi Unit), 5 severe injuries and 15 injuries,
  • In South Korea (Yonhnpnews), 1 fatality and 3 injuries
  • In the US (Journalstar), 1 fatality and 3 injuries.