Most refrigeration and air conditioning accidents are due to equipment failures or human errors. These factors reinforce the fact that for each refrigerant, and particularly those with dangerous properties, accidents must be minimized by high technical standards, good maintenance of installations and adequate training.
A recent article on future HFC emissions addresses including HFCs within the Montreal Protocol scope, in order to preserve the climate benefit of the ODS (Ozone depletion Substances) phase-out.
Following an energy audit to improve the energy efficiency for the replacement of the existing HCFC-22 refrigeration system, a German chocolate producer has decided on an optimized HFC-134a based concept.
According to the recently released 2010 France refrigerants survey – published by Mines ParisTech/Armines/ERIE for the French ADEME Agency (Inventaires des Emissions des fluides frigorigènes - FRANCE – Année 2010) - the French total demand for refrigerants was 10,224 tonnes in 2010, of which 80 % HFCs (mainly HFC-134a and R-404A), 15 % HCFCs (practically only HFCF-22) and 5 % ammonia and CO2.
German installers have evaluated the use of R407C and of CO2 in air/water domestic heat pumps, and concluded that R407C gives a better environmental performance than CO2 - measured as TEWI (Total equivalent Warming Impact).
A newly installed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), using a mixture of HFC-134a and HFC-245fa as working fluid, will deliver an additional 2.5 MW to the existing 16.7 MW capacity of a Geothermal Facility in Nevada, USA.
COOL-SAVE is an Intelligent Energy – Europe project, designed to develop and disseminate cost effective strategies to improve energy efficiency in cooling systems in the food and drink sector, the biggest manufacturing sector in the UE.
HFC-134a is used in water chillers necessary for the manufacture of high precision shafts produced in a French factory. This is a technically challenging process, starting from three meters long rods of different diameters which are machined to achieve high precision 6 to 40 mm diameter pieces.
A 16 ton all-electric experimental truck, the world’s largest, is using R404A to provide 6 to 10 KW to keep contained food products between 0 °C and -20 °C.
The US Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched Phase Two of its Low GWP Refrigerant Research Project, addressing their use in air conditioning and heat pump systems.
A Working Party on Life Cycle Climate Performance Evaluation has been set up by the International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR)).
The first car to use HFO-1234yf instead of HFC-134a for its air conditioning system is already being sold in Europe, according to reports in the auto press.
The British Carbon Trust has published a Refrigeration Road Map.