HFCs & the environment

HFC-32 (difluoromethane)

The octanol/water partition coefficient suggests a low potential for bioaccumulation and there is low risk to the aquatic environment.

HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane)

Ecological properties

Pentafluoroethane degrades in the atmosphere to CO2 and HF by reaction with naturally occurring hydroxyl radicals.
The atmospheric lifetime is estimated to be 40.7 years. Pentafluoroethane has no effect on stratospheric ozone since it contains neither chlorine nor bromine. Pentafluoroethane has a global warning potential of 2800 relative to CO2 7 at 100 years.

Source
Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals No. 24
HFC 125 (Pentafluoroethane)
ECETOC May 1994

Ecotoxicological properties

No data available

HFC-134a (1, 1, 1,2-tetrafluoroethane)

Ecological properties

Tetrafluoroethane, when released to the environment, partitions almost exclusively into the atmosphere. Degradation of tetrafluoroethane will occur mainly in the troposphere by reaction with hydroxyl radicals leading to trifluoroacetic acid, formic acid, hydrofluoric acid and carbon dioxide as ultimate degradation products. The overall atmospheric lifetime is 14 years. Tetrafluoroethane has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1300 relative to CO2 at 100 years.

Source
Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals No. 31
HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane)
ECETOC, February 1995
IPCC, climate change 2001, third assessment report, Cambridge university press, 2001.

Ecotoxicological properties

Environmental testing of tetrafluoroethane has only been carried out on aquatic organisms. As tetrafluoroethane is a gas special procedures were employed to obtain solutions of the test substance and to prevent losses occurring during the test. All exposure concentrations were analytically verified.

HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane)

Ecological properties

Mobility

Air, Henry's law constant (H) ca : 185 kPa.m3/mol
Result: considerable volatility Conditions: 20°C /calculated value
Soil/sediments, adsorption : log Koc from 1,86 - 2,32 Conditions: calculated value

Abiotic degradation

Air, photolysis, ODP : = 0
Result: no effect on stratospheric ozone Reference value for CFC 11: ODP = 1
Air, greenhouse effect, GWP : = 3800 Reference value for CO2 = 1 at 100 years

Comments

Product is persistent in air (atmospheric lifetime: 48.3 years)

Source
Safety Data Sheet of Solvay. IPCC climate change

HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane)

Ecological properties

Mobility

Air, Henry's law : 2645 kPa.m³/mol
Constant (H) ca Result: considerable volatility
Conditions: 20°C /calculated value

Soil/sediments, adsorption : log KOC ca. 2.2 Conditions: calculated value

Abiotic degradation

Air, indirect photo-oxidation : t ½ ca.25 year(s)
Conditions: sensitizer: OH radicals

Air, photolysis, ODP : = 0
Result: no effect on stratospheric ozone

Air, greenhouse effect, GWP : = 2900
Reference value for CO2 = 1 at 100 year

Biotic degradation

Aerobic, test : ready biodegradability/closed bottle
Degradation = 20 %, 28 day(s)
Result: non-readily biodegradable

Potential for bioaccumulation

Bioconcentration : log P o/w ca. 2.5
Result: weak bioaccumulation potential
Conditions: calculated value

Comments

Product is persistent in air (atmospheric lifetime: 36.5 years)
Product is not significantly hazardous for the aquatic
Environment as:

  • Considerable volatility
  • Low bioaccumulation potential

Ecotoxicological properties

Fishes, Brachidanio rerio, LC 50, 96 h >= 30 mg/l
Bacteria, EC 0, activity inhibition : >= 173 mg/l

Source
Safety Data Sheet of Solvay
IPCC Climate change

HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane)

Ecological properties

EC50 (limit test) in : > 97,9 mg/l
Daphnia magna 48 h

NOEC : > 97,9 mg/l

EC50 (limit test) : > 81,8 mg/l
in Rainbow Trout 96 h

NOEC : > 10 mg

Octanol/Water Partition
Coefficient
LogPow : = 1.35 at 21.5°C

ozone depletion potential (ODP) = 0
global warning potential (GWP) = 950
Relative to CO2 = 1 at 100 years
atmospheric lifetime = 7.2 years

Source
Safety Data Sheet of Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
IPCC, climate change 2001, third assessment report, Cambridge university press, 2001.

HFC-365mfc (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane)

Ecological properties

Mobility

Air, Henry's law constant (H) ca : 3.8 kPa.m3/mol
Result: considerable volatility
Conditions: 20°C /calculated value

Soil/sediments, adsorption : log KOC ca. 1.8
Conditions: calculated value

Abiotic degradation

Air, indirect photo-oxidation : t ½ ca.7.04 year(s)

Air, photolysis, ODP : = 0
Result: no effect on stratospheric ozone
Reference value for CFC 11: ODP = 1

Air, greenhouse effect, GWP : = 890
Reference value for CO2 = 9.9 years

Biotic degradation

Aerobic, test : ready biodegradability/closed bottle, 13 %, 28 day(s)
Result: non-readily biodegradable

Potential for bioaccumulation

Bioconcentration : log P o/w ca. 1.61
Result: improbable bioaccumulation
Conditions: measured value

Comments

Product is persistent in air (atmospheric lifetime: 1 at 100 years)
Hazard for the aquatic environment is limited due to product properties:

  • Considerable volatility
  • Low bioaccumulation potential

Ecotoxicological properties

Acute ecotoxicity

Fishes, Brachidanio rerio, LC 50, 96 h >= 200 mg/l
Crustaceans, Daphnia magna, NOEC, 48 h > 200 mg/l
Algae, Selenastrum capricornutum, NOEC 72 h = 113 mg/l

Source
Safety Data Sheet of Solvay
IPCC, climate change 2001, third assessment report, Cambridge university press, 2001.

HFC-43-10-mee (1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane)

Ecological properties

Mobility

Air, Henry's law : 15 kPa.m3/mol
Constant (H) ca Result: considerable volatility
Conditions: 20°C /calculated value

Water, evaporation : t ½ = 3 hour(s)
Conditions: calculated value from mathematical model/river

Soil/sediments, adsorption : log KOC from 1.6 - 2
Conditions: calculated value

Abiotic degradation

Air, indirect photo-oxidation : t ½ ca. 15 year(s)
Conditions : Sensitizer: OH radicals
Degradation's products :Carbon dioxide / hydrofluoric

Air, photolysis : ODP = 0
Reference value for CFC 11: ODP = 1

Air, greenhouse effect, GWP : = 1300
Reference value for CO2 for 100 years

Water/soil, hydrolysis : t ½ > 10,000 year(s)
Result: non-significant hydrolysis
Conditions: calculated value

Biotic degradation

Aerobic, test : ready biodegradability / modified STURM
Degradation = 5 %, 28 day(s)
Result: non-readily biodegradable

Potential for bioaccumulation

Bioconcentration : aquatic organisms, BCF = 42
Result: non-bioaccumulable
Conditions: calculated value

Comments

Product is persistent in air(atmospheric lifetime: 17,1 years)
Product is not significantly hazardous for the aquatic environment as:

  • Low toxicity for aquatic organisms
  • Considerable volatility
  • No bioaccumulation

Source
Safety Data Sheet of DuPont
IPCC, climate change 2001, third assessment report, Cambridge university press, 2001.

Ecotoxicological properties

96 hour LC50, fathead minnows : 27.2 mg/l
96 hour LC50, rainbow trout : 13.9 mg/l
48 hour LC50, Daphnia magna : 11.7 mg/l

Fish, Poecilia reticulata, LC 50, 96 h: 220 mg/l
Crustaceans, Daphnia magna, EC 50, 48 h: 160 mg/l

Source
Safety Data Sheet of DuPont